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[TPO阅读] TPO41托福阅读Passage 1 题目解析完整版(小站教育出品)

 
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发表于 2016-7-4 18:38 |显示全部楼层
近期TPO托福模考软件新增了40-48套题,那么对于TPO40-48套题大家都做过了吗?
是不是有哪些题目你还不会呢?
今天这里主页君为大家带来了TPO41托福阅读Passage 1 的全套题目解析
正在备考托福阅读的考试快来学习一下吧。

TPO41托福阅读Passage 1 的阅读文章下载请点这里:http://bbs.zhan.com/thread-300889-1-1.html

Paragraph 1
TheNavajo, a Native American people living in the southwestern United States, livein small scattered settlements. In many respects, such as education,occupation, and leisure activities, their life is like that of other groupsthat contribute to the diverse social fabric of North American culture in thetwenty-first century. At the same time, they have retained some traditionalcultural practices that are associated with particular art forms. For example, themost important traditional Navajo rituals include the production of large floorpaintings. These are actually made by pouring thin, finely controlled streamsof colored sands or pulverized vegetable and mineral substances, pollen, andflowers in precisepatterns on the ground. The largest of these paintings may be up to 5.5 metersin diameter and cover the entire floor of a room. Working from theinside of the design outward, the Navajo artist and his assistants will siftthe black, white, bluish-gray, orange, and red materials through their fingersto create the finely detailed imagery. The paintings and chants used in theceremonies are directed by well-trained artists and singers who enlistthe aid of spirits who are impersonated by masked performers. The twenty-fourknown Navajo chants can be represented by up to 500 sand paintings. Thesecomplex paintings serve as memory aids to guide the singers during theperformance of the ritual songs, which can last up to nine days.
1.      Theword “precise”is closest in meaning to    【词汇题】
A.     colorful
B.     exact
C.     delicate
D.     complex
答案:B
解析:
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2. Theword“enlist"in the passage is closest in meaning to   【词汇题】
A.    assist
B.     require
C.     describe
D.    recruit
答案:D
解析:Enlist, 使入伍,征募。
Assist, 帮助,促进。Require, 要求,命令。Describe, 描述,形容。Recruit, 聘用,征募。所以D选项正确。
3. What can be inferred fromparagraph 1 about the Navajo ritual chants?     【推理题】
A. There is a large number of them.
B. Each of them corresponds to a particularsand painting.
C. They are difficult to remember.
D. They do nottake long to perform
答案:C
解析:根据原文“ The twenty-four known Navajo chants can be represented by up to 500 sandpaintings.”可看出,一共只有24首纳瓦霍人圣歌,数量并不是很多,所以A选项错误。原文说这24首圣歌可以被多达500幅沙画所描绘表现出来,但是并没有说每首圣歌都分别对应一幅沙画,因此B选项错误。第一段最后一句话说“which can last up to nine days.”可看出整个表演时间会长达九天,而D选项说表演时间并不长,因此D选项错误。所以C选项正确。
4. According toparagraph 1, all of the following are true of many important Navajo ritualsEXCEPT:
【否定事实信息题】
A. They involve the creation of large,detailed images.
B. They include performers whose faces arecovered.
C. They take place indoors.
D. They are performed without elaborateplanning.
答案:D
解析:根据rituals一词,可定位至原文第四句话。原文“ These are actually made by pouring thin, finelycontrolled streams of colored sands or pulverized vegetable and mineralsubstances, pollen, and flowers in precise patterns on the ground.”对应A选项。
“ The paintings and chants used in the ceremonies are directed bywell-trained artists and singers who enlist the aid of spirits who areimpersonated by masked performers.”中的“masked performers”对应B选项。
“Working from the inside of the design outward”对应C选项。
选项D在文中并未被提及,所以D选项正确。
Paragraph 2
Thepurpose and meaning of the sand paintings can be explained by examining one ofthe most basic ideals of Navajo society, embodied in their word hozho (beautyor harmony, goodness, and happiness). It coexists with hochxo ("ugliness,"or "evil," and "disorder") in a world where opposing forcesof dynamism and stability create constant change. When the world, which wascreated in beauty, becomes ugly and disorderly, the Navajo gather to performrituals with songs and make sand paintings to restore beauty and harmony to theworld. Someillness is itself regarded as a type of disharmony. Thus, the restoration ofharmony through a ceremony can be part of a curing process.
5. It can be inferred from thediscussion of illness and curing in paragraph 2 that       【推理题】
A. the Navajoconsider illness to always have a supernatural cause
B. rituals involving songs andsand paintings may be used to treat an illness
C. when a Navajo is ill, uglyand disorderly sand paintings are made
D. after a serious illness, aNavajo will take part in a ceremony
答案:B
解析:根据原文“ the Navajo gather to perform rituals with songs and make sand paintingsto restore beauty and harmony to the world. Some illness is itself regarded asa type of disharmony.”可看出,纳瓦霍人聚集在一起表演歌曲并制作沙画是为了使世界恢复美丽以及和平,一些疾病本身就被看作是一种不和谐。B选项为同意替换,其中Some illness isitself regarded as a type of disharmony对应B选项中的treat an illness。所以B选项正确。
Paragraph 3
Menmake sand paintings that are accurate copies of paintings from the past. Thesongs sung over the paintings are also faithful renditions of songsfrom the past. By re­creating these arts, which reflect the original beauty ofcreation, the Navajo bring beauty to the present world. As relative newcomers tothe Southwest, a place where their climate, neighbors, and rulers could beequally inhospitable, the Navajo created these art forms to affect the worldaround them, not just through the recounting of the actions symbolized, butthrough the beauty and harmony of the artworks themselves. The paintingsgenerally illustrate ideas and events from the life of a mythical hero, who,after being healed by the gods, gave gifts of songs and paintings. Working frommemory, the artists re-create the traditional form of the image as accuratelyas possible.
6. The word “faithful” in the passage is closest in meaningto        【词汇题】
A. modern
B. accurate
C. wonderful
D. simplified
答案:B
解析:Faithful, 如实的,准确可靠的。
Modern, 现代的,时髦的。Accurate, 精确的。Wonderful, 精彩的,奇妙的。Simplified,简化了的。所以B选项正确。
7. Which of the sentences below best expresses theessential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrectchoices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essentialinformation.   【句子简化题】
A. The Navajo used the symbolismand beauty of their works of art to improve their life in an often inhospitableenvironment.
B. Theideas the Navajo hold about symbolism and beauty were influenced by theirinhospitable climate, neighbors, and rulers.
C. When they firstarrived in the Southwest, the Navajo produced symbolic art forms that promotedharmony.
D. In their works of art, the Navajo emphasizedbeauty and harmony that can be found even under the most inhospitablecircumstances.
答案:A
解析:Highlighted部分意为,作为气候,邻居,和管理者都贫瘠荒凉的西南部的新来者,纳瓦霍人创造了这些艺术形式来影响他们周围的世界,而不仅仅是通过象征行为的叙述,而是通过艺术品自身的美以及和谐。其中the actionssymbolized对应A选项中的symbolismthe beauty andharmony of the artworks themselves对应A选项中的beauty of their works of art. 所以A选项正确。
8. According toparagraph 3, which of the following is often the subject of Navajo sandpaintings?
【事实信息题】
A. The landscape of the Southwest
B. TraditionalNavajo practices
C. Historical events thatoccurred in the Southwest
D. The lives of heroes intraditional Navajo stories
答案:D
解析:根据原文“The paintings generally illustrate ideas and events from the life of amythical hero, who, after being healed by the gods, gave gifts of songs andpaintings.” 可看出,沙画中的主题是神话英雄的生活,其中the life of a mythical hero对应D选项中的The lives of heroes. 所以D选项正确。
Paragraph 4
TheNavajo are also world-famous for the designs on their woven blankets. Navajowomen own the family flocks, control the shearing of the sheep, the carding,the spinning, and dying of the thread, and the weaving of the fabrics. Whilethe men who make faithful copies of sand paintings from the past represent theprinciple of stability in Navajo thought, women embody dynamism and create newdesigns for every weaving they make. Weaving is a paradigm of the creativity ofamythic ancestor named Spider Woman who wove the universe as a cosmic webthat united earth and sky. It was she who,accordingto legend, taught Navajo women how to weave. As they prepare their materialsand weave. Navajo women imitate the transformations that originally created theworld. Working on their looms, Navajo weavers create images through which theyexperience harmony with nature. It is their means of creating beauty andthereby contributing to the beauty, harmony, and healing of the world. Thus,weaving is a way of seeing the world and being part of it.
9. Paragraph 4 supports which ofthe following statements about Navajo weavers and weaving?
【事实信息题】
A. Navajo womenoversee all aspects of wool production and weaving.
B. The woolused for blankets comes from different sheep than does the wool used for otherpurposes.
C. Navajoweavers have used some of the same designs for hundreds of years.
D. Weaving is done primarily for use inrituals.
答案:A
解析:整个第四段都在介绍纳瓦霍人编织的历史和过程,所以A选项正确。B选项的“ comes fromdifferent sheep”没有提到。根据原文“ women embody dynamism and create new designs for everyweaving they make.”可知C选择说有些设计已经被用了几百年并不正确。D选项在文章中也并未提及。
10. The word “ancestor”in the passage is closest in meaning to           【词汇题】
A. relative from an earliergeneration
B. personwho established a particular tradition in a society
C. hero from ancient times
D. person who once made important contributionsto a social group or culture
答案:A
解析:Ancestor, 祖先的意思。A选项的relative from anearlier generation, 意为更早一代的亲属,所以A选项正确。
11. Why does theauthor discuss “a mythic ancestor”?                【修辞目的题】
A. To show howNavajo ideas of weaving have changed over time
B. To explain whythe Navajo principle of stability is more clearly represented in their weavingsthan in their sand paintings
C. Toemphasize the role of naturally occurring weaving materials in the creativeweavings of the Navajo
D. To help explain thesignificance of weaving in Navajo culture
答案:D
解析:根据“ Navajo women imitate the transformations that originally created theworld.”可看出,作者提及这个神秘的祖先Spider Woman是为了向我们介绍在纳瓦霍文化中,编织的重要性。所以D选项正确。

12. According to paragraph 4, Navajo weavers imitate       【事实信息题】
A. traditional weaving patterns
B. patterns used in sand paintings
C. the activities through which the world was created
D. images from nature
答案:C
解析:根据原文“ Navajo women imitate the transformations that originally created theworld.”可看出,C选项为同意转换,因此选项C正确。
13. Look at the four squares []] thatindicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.        【句子插入题】
Since this purpose is limitedto the context of the ritual, the paintings are destroyed when the ritual iscompleted.
Wherewould the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] toadd the sentence to the passage.
TheNavajo, a Native American people living in the southwestern United States, livein small scattered settlements. In many respects, such as education,occupation, and leisure activities, their life is like that of other groupsthat contribute to the diverse social fabric of North American culture in thetwenty-first century. At the same time, they have retained some traditionalcultural practices that are associated with particular art forms. For example, themost important traditional Navajo rituals include the production of large floorpaintings. These are actually made by pouring thin, finely controlled streamsof colored sands or pulverized vegetable and mineral substances, pollen, andflowers in precise patterns on the ground. The largest of these paintings maybe up to 5.5 meters in diameter and cover the entire floor of a room.  Working from the inside of the design outward,the Navajo artist and his assistants will sift the black, white, bluish-gray,orange, and red materials through their fingers to create the finely detailedimagery.  [■] The paintings andchants used in the ceremonies are directed by well-trained artists and singerswho enlist the aid of spirits who are impersonated by masked performers.  [■] The twenty-fourknown Navajo chants can be represented by up to 500 sand paintings.  [■] These complexpaintings serve as memory aids to guide the singers during the performance ofthe ritual songs, which can last up to nine days.  [■]
答案:D
解析:这三句话都在讲paintings, 最后一句说这些复杂的画在表演中作为记忆辅助工具,而插入的句子的意思是由于这个目的受仪式内容的限制,所以当仪式结束后就会被销毁,所以句子应该插入在选项D的位置。
14. Directions: An introductory sentence fora brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary byselected THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in thepassage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideasthat are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. Thisquestion is worth 2 points.
【概要小结题】
Drag your answer choices to the spaces where theybelong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.
Toreview the passage, click View Text.
Navajo art is fundamentally connected to aspects of Navajo ritual andbelief.
AnswerChoices
A. Navajo sand paintings are an expression of theclose relationship between nature and the spiritual world in Navajo culture
B. Sand paintings, which help participants inrituals recall traditional chants, are part of ceremonies designed to restorebeauty and harmony.
C. Whereas Navajo sand paintings are associatedwith male deities. Navajo weaving involves representations of female figuressuch as Spider Woman.
D. Individual Navajo sand paintings typicallyembody the principles of harmony and disorder.
E.     Sand paintings, which arecreated by Navajo men, are faithful re-creations of earlier works and as suchrepresent the principle of stability.
F.     In Navajo culture, weaving isa female art and is associated with creativity and change.
答案:B, E, F
解析:

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