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[机经回忆] [小站独家]2016年9月15日雅思A类阅读考试真题回忆与解析

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发表于 2016-9-19 15:31 |显示全部楼层
2016年9月10日雅思考试 已经结束,小站教育教学研发中心黄伟嘉老师和吕燕君老师为大家带来最新,最快,最全的考试回忆。(转载请注明出处)

9月15日雅思考试完整回忆,点击进入

  
2016年09月15日雅思阅读机经考题回忆
  
——来自小站教育教学研发中心
  
Passage One
新旧
题材
题目
题型
旧(2013年12月14日)
科技
Magnet Therapy
段落主旨配对7
  
多项选择2
  
文章主旨:文章介绍了magnet therapy的在过去和当今的应用,以及支持者和反对者的观点
段落主旨配对7:
  
1.     第一段:magnet 相关的commercial products
  
2.     第二段:magnet应用的原理
  
3.     第三段:magnet在past的应用
  
4.     第四段:magnet在today的应用
  
5.     第五点:反对magnet
  
6.     第六段:反对的一些理由
  
7.     第七段:做的magnet的效果的实验
  
  
参考阅读:
  
Magnet Therapy
  
  Magnet therapy, magnetic therapy, or  magnotherapy is an alternative medicine practice involving the use of static  magnetic fields. Practitioners claim that subjecting certain parts of the  body to magnetostatic fields produced by permanent magnets has beneficial  health effects. These pseudoscientific physical and biological claims are  unproven and no effects on health or healing have been established. Although  hemoglobin, the blood protein that carries oxygen, is weakly diamagnetic and  is repulsed by magnetic fields, the magnets used in magnetic therapy are many  orders of magnitude too weak to have any measurable effect on blood flow.
  
  Methods of application
  
  Magnet therapy is the application of  the magnetic field of electromagnetic devices or permanent static magnets to  the body for purported health benefits. Some practitioners assign different  effects based on the orientation of the magnet; under the laws of physics,  magnetic poles are symmetric.
  
  Products include magnetic bracelets  and jewelry; magnetic straps for wrists, ankles, knees, and the back; shoe  insoles; mattresses; magnetic blankets ; magnetic creams; magnetic  supplements; plasters/patches and water that has been "magnetized".  Application is usually performed by the patient.
  
  Purported mechanisms of action
  
  Perhaps the most common suggested  mechanism is that magnets might improve blood flow in underlying tissues. The  field surrounding magnet therapy devices is far too weak and falls off with  distance far too quickly to appreciably affect hemoglobin, other blood  components, muscle tissue, bones, blood vessels, or organs. A 1991 study on  humans of static field strengths up to 1 T found no effect on local blood  flow. Tissue oxygenation is similarly unaffected. Some practitioners claim  that the magnets can restore the body's theorized "electromagnetic  energy balance", but no such balance is medically recognized. Even in  the magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging, which are many times  stronger, none of the claimed effects are observed.
  
  Efficacy
  
  Several studies have been conducted in  recent years to investigate what, if any, role static magnetic fields may  play in health and healing. Unbiased studies of magnetic therapy are  problematic, since magnetisation can be easily detected, for instance, by the  attraction forces on ferrous objects; because of this, effective blinding of  studies is difficult. Incomplete or insufficient blinding tends to exaggerate  treatment effects, particularly where any such effects are small. Health  claims such as longevity and cancer treatment are implausible and unsupported  by any research. More mundane health claims, most commonly pain relief, also  lack any credible proposed mechanism, and clinical research is not promising.
  
  Pain
  
  Effects of magnet therapy on pain  relief beyond non-specific placebo response have not been adequately  demonstrated. A 2008 systematic review of magnet therapy for all indications  found no evidence of an effect for pain relief. It reported that small sample  sizes, inadequate randomization, and difficulty with allocation concealment  all tend to bias studies positively and limit the strength of any  conclusions. In 2009 the results of a randomized double-blind  placebo-controlled crossover trial on the use of magnetic wrist straps for  osteoarthritis were published, addressing a gap in the earlier systematic  review. This trial showed that magnetic wrist straps are ineffective in the  management of pain, stiffness and physical function in osteoarthritis. The  authors concluded that "reported benefits are most likely attributable  to non-specific placebo effects".
  
  The History of Magnets.
  
  Historically it is reported that  magnets have been around for an extremely long time. Magnets were first  documented around 2500-3000 years BC. Their origins are first noted in Asia  Minor in a vast land called Magnesia. The earth there was enriched with iron  oxide which attracted metals to it. The locals named it Magnetite
  
  Magnets have been used in Chinese  medicine from around 2000 BC in-conjunction with reflexology and acupuncture.  It is still used today as a first line treatment for many common complaints.
  
  3,500 years after they were first  discovered, magnets have gained popularity in Europe and the USA. In the 15th  century a Swiss physician Paracelsus recognised the therapeutic powers of  magnets. He wrote medical papers on the influence of magnets on the  inflammatory processes within the body.
  
  How Do Magnets Work?
  
  The human body is not based simply on  biochemical reactions, but also electromagnetic interactions. Biological  processes, like smooth muscle contractions and nerve signals, are controlled  by the balance and movement of chemical ions. These are biochemicals that  have a positive or negative electric charge. They can be influenced  chemically, as with drugs, as well as by external electrical and magnetic  fields.
  
  Based on more current studies,  researchers believe magnets may make it easier for ions to shift and move  through membrances , triggering biological processes more efficiently. For  example, the body uses calcium ions as a messenger system, causing the smooth  muscle walls of capillary blood vessels to either relax or constrict. This  increases or decreases the amount of blood flow.
  
  Researchers from Japan, and more  recently, the University of Virginia, have observed that when exposing an  injured area to a strong magnetic field, changes in blood flow happened much  faster. Interestingly, magnetic fields were able to both decrease blood flow  to reduce swelling quicker, and later increase blood flow for faster healing.  This means the magnets were not causing changes directly, but rather  improving the body's own ability to regulate blood flow - likely by improving  the ion signal process.
  
  Separating magnet therapy from almost  every other form of alternative or mainstream medicine, both doctors and  researchers agree that magnets are safe and do not cause side effects when  used properly. This is because instead of changing processes chemically,  biomagnetics enhance the body's own abilities to heal itself after injury and  reduce pain signals. For this reason, people with chronic conditions, like  arthritis, tendonitis and fibromyalgia, are turning to magnets as a safer  form of pain relief.
  
  Use Around the World
  
  Today, magnet therapy is used in  Germany, France, Britain, India, Japan, China, Italy, Israel and about 40  other countries. A number of government health systems, such as Japan's  Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, officially recognize magnet therapy  as a safe, viable and cost-effective treatment option. Britain is the most  recent to adopt magnetic therapy, where doctors are prescribing magnets to  both heal and help prevent the development of leg ulcers - reducing the time  and costs of patient care.
  
  While magnet therapy is not fully  understood, millions of people have benefited from its use for pain relief,  improved healing, and better sleep. Of all forms of alternative medicine,  magnetic therapy is both the safest and easiest to use. It offers the best  opportunity for sustainable, long-term pain relief and better quality of  life, without the worry of side effects. This alone makes magnets the ideal  first choice for arthritis and chronic pain management, before trying other  options.
  
Passage Two
新旧
题材
题目
题型
  
商业
Should top managers be promoted from within the company of hired from  outside
Summary1
  
T/F/NG
  
段落细节配对
文章主旨:本文主要讲解对于是应该自己公司自己培养高级管理者还是从外雇佣的一些理论,结论偏向自己培养
Summary
  
1000个analysts  研究表明hire from outside的缺陷有三个:1.  Hiring outside 会导致star的效率降低。不愿意适应公司的现状。2. Hiring from outside会让new team 感到threaten,就想新的器官移植会产生side-effect。3. Hiring from outside会让公司的stock减少,但是讽刺的是hiring star本来是要提高盈利。
  
  
段落细节配对
  
D hiring from outside的第一个缺点
  
E hiring from outside的第二个缺点
  
F hiring from outside的第三个缺点
  
G 一个non-business的例子(football club的例子)
Passage Three
新旧
题目
题目
题型
旧(2013年12月14日)
环境
Reducing the exposure of indoor air pollution in developing countries
单选
  
判断题
  
句子配对
文章主旨:文章主要讲解了在一些国家是如何reduce室内的做饭产生的烟雾。 主要有改变燃烧材料,该表烹饪方式以及人们如何选择
单选:
  
1. 最effective 的reducing air pollution的方法是改变燃烧材料
  
2. Hay cook是利用燃料燃尽后产生的能力来做饭
  
3. Solar energy 没有被大量使用的原因是:只能中午做饭,且只能在室外cook
  
4. In town,使用液化气的困难是:需要特殊的炉子
  
5. 肯尼亚的例子说明了:window 更大对reduce pollution 没什么效果
  
6. Biogas没有大面积普及的原因:因为人们的观念问题
  
7. 最终能reduce还是取决于:人们如何选择方式
  
判断:
  
大多数妈妈可以选择让自己的孩子远离烟雾:N
  
  
参考阅读:
  
Reducing Exposure to Combustion Products in Homes
  
  Install  Sanibulb? Air Sanitizing, Purifying & Deodorizing CFL Bulbs
  
  A  simple and effective way to destroy harmful combustion gases is to switch to  Sanibulb? from incandescent lights. The nano photocatalytic coating employed  on this product will oxidize and destroy noxious pollutants released from  combustion by simply switching on a light bulb! And, you will reduce your  energy consumption and save money in the process as well! Please refer to the  Air Purifier Comparison Guide which indicates that Sanibulb? is better at  destroying toxic combustion products then most filters, which merely trap  airborne particles and do not remove noxious gases.
  
  Take  special precautions when operating fuel-burning unvented space heaters.
  
  Consider  potential effects of indoor air pollution if you use an unvented kerosene or  gas space heater. Follow the manufacturer's directions, especially  instructions on the proper fuel and keeping the heater properly adjusted. A  persistent yellow-tipped flame is generally an indicator of maladjustment and  increased pollutant emissions. While a space heater is in use, open a door  from the room where the heater is located to the rest of the house and open a  window slightly.
  
  Install  and use exhaust fans over gas cooking stoves and ranges and keep the burners  properly adjusted.
  
  Using  a stove hood with a fan vented to the outdoors greatly reduces exposure to  pollutants during cooking. Improper adjustment, often indicated by a  persistent yellow-tipped flame, causes increased pollutant emissions. Ask  your gas company to adjust the burner so that the flame tip is blue. If you  purchase a new gas stove or range, consider buying one with pilotless  ignition because it does not have a pilot light that burns continuously.  Never use a gas stove to heat your home. Always make certain the flue in your  gas fireplace is open when the fireplace is in use.
  
  Keep  woodstove emissions to a minimum. Choose properly sized new stoves that are  certified as meeting EPA emission standards.
  
  Make  certain that doors in old woodstoves are tight-fitting. Use aged or cured  (dried) wood only and follow the manufacturer's directions for starting,  stoking, and putting out the fire in woodstoves. Chemicals are used to  pressure-treat wood; such wood should never be burned indoors.
  
  Have  central air handling systems, including furnaces, flues, and chimneys,  inspected annually and promptly repair cracks or damaged parts.
  
  Blocked,  leaking, or damaged chimneys or flues release harmful combustion gases and  particles and even fatal concentrations of carbon monoxide. Strictly follow  all service and maintenance procedures recommended by the manufacturer,  including those that tell you how frequently to change the filter. If  manufacturer's instructions are not readily available, change filters once  every month or two during periods of use. Proper maintenance is important  even for new furnaces because they can also corrode and leak combustion gases,  including carbon monoxide.
  
  Household  Products
  
  Organic  chemicals are widely used as ingredients in household products. Paints,  varnishes, and wax all contain organic solvents, as do many cleaning,  disinfecting, cosmetic, degreasing, and hobby products. Fuels are made up of  organic chemicals. All of these products can release organic compounds while  you are using them, and, to some degree, when they are stored.
  
  EPA's  Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies found levels of about a  dozen common organic pollutants to be 2 to 5 times higher inside homes than  outside, regardless of whether the homes were located in rural or highly  industrial areas. Additional TEAM studies indicate that while people are  using products containing organic chemicals, they can expose themselves and  others to very high pollutant levels, and elevated concentrations can persist  in the air long after the activity is completed.
  
  Health  Effects of Household Chemicals
  
  The  ability of organic chemicals to cause health effects varies greatly, from  those that are highly toxic, to those with no known health effect. As with  other pollutants, the extent and nature of the health effect will depend on  many factors including level of exposure and length of time exposed. Eye and  respiratory tract irritation, headaches, dizziness, visual disorders, and  memory impairment are among the immediate symptoms that some people have  experienced soon after exposure to some organics. At present, not much is  known about what health effects occur from the levels of organics usually  found in homes. Many organic compounds are known to cause cancer in animals;  some are suspected of causing, or are known to cause, cancer in humans.
  
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