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[机经题库答案] 托福阅读地质类真题150613CN-P1原文+题目

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发表于 2017-4-18 15:04 |显示全部楼层
类别:地质类
真题150613CN-P1
TitleEarly Theories of Continental Drift
The idea that the past geography of Earth was  different from today is not new. The  earliest maps showing the east coast of South America and the west  coast of Africa probably provided people with the first evidence that continents may have once been  joined together, then broken apart and moved  to their present positions.
    
During the late nineteenth century, Austrian  geologist Eduard Suess noted the similarities between the Late  Paleozoic plant fossils of India, Australia, South Africa, and South  America. The plant fossils comprise a unique group of plants that occurs in coal  layers just above the glacial deposits  on these southern continents. In this book The Face of the Earth(1885), he proposed the name “Gondwanaland” (called Gondwana here)  for a supercontinent composed of  the aforementioned southern landmasses. Suess thought these southern continents were  connected by land bridges over which  plants and animals migrated. Thus,  in his view,  the similarities of fossils on these continents were due to the appearance and disappearance  of the connecting land bridges.
    
The American geologist Frank Taylor published a  pamphlet in 1910 presenting his own theory of continental  drift. He explained the formation of  mountain ranges as a result  of the lateral movements of continents. He also envisioned the present-day continents  as parts of larger polar continents that  eventually broke apart and migrated toward equator after Earth’s rotation was supposedly slowed by gigantic tidal forces. According to Taylor, these  tidal forces were generated when Earth’s gravity captured the Moon  about 100 million years ago.  Although we know that Taylor ‘s explanation of continental drift is  incorrect, one of his most significant contributions was his suggestion that  the Mid-Atlantic Ridge—an underwater mountain chain discovered by the  1872-1876 British HMS Challenger expeditions—might mark the site at which an  ancient continent broke apart, forming the present –day Atlantic Ocean.
    
However, it is Alfred Wegener, a German  meteorologist, who is generally  credited with developing the hypothesis of continental drift. In his monumental book, The Origin of Continents and Oceans (1915), Wegener proposed  that all landmasses were originally united into a single supercontinent that he named “Pangaea.” Wegner  portrayed his grand concept of continental movement  in a series of maps showing the breakup of Pangaea and the movement of various  continents to their present-day  locations. What evidence did Wegener use to support his hypothesis of continental drift? First, Wegener noted that the shorelines of continents fit together, forming a large  supercontinent and that marine, nonmarine, and glacial rock sequences of Pennsylvanian to Jurassic ages  are almost identical for all  Gondwana continents, strongly indicating that they were joined together at  one time. Furthermore, mountain ranges and glacial deposits seem to match  up in such a way that suggests continents could have  once been a single  landmass. And last, many of the same extinct plant and animal groups  are found today on widely separated continents, indicating that the continents must have been in proximity  at one time. Wegener argued that this vast  amount of evidence from a variety of sources surely  indicated the continents must have been close together  at one time in the past.
    
Alexander Du Toit, a South African geologist  was one of Wegener’s ardent  supporters. He noted that fossils of the Permian freshwater reptile “Mesosaurus” occur in rocks of the same age in both Brazil and South Africa. Because the physiology of  freshwater and marine animals is completely  different, it is hard to imagine how a freshwater reptile could have swum across the  Atlantic Ocean and then found  a freshwater environment nearly identical to its former habitat. Furthermore, if Mesosaurus could have swum across the ocean, its fossil remains should occur in other localities besides Brazil and South Africa. It is more logical to assume  that Mesosaurus lived in lakes in what are now adjacent areas  of South America  and Africa but were  then united in a single continent.
    
Despite what seemed to be overwhelming evidence  presented Wegener and later Du Toit and others, most geologists at the time refused to entertain the idea that the continents might have  moved in the past
  
  Paragraph 2  
During the late nineteenth century, Austrian  geologist Eduard Suess noted the similarities between the Late  Paleozoic plant fossils of India, Australia, South Africa, and South  America. The plant fossils comprise a unique group of plants that occurs in coal  layers just above the glacial deposits  on these southern continents. In this book The Face of the Earth (1885),  he proposed the name “Gondwanaland” (called Gondwana here) for a supercontinent composed of the  aforementioned southern landmasses. Suess thought these southern continents were  connected by land bridges over which  plants and animals migrated. Thus,  in his view,  the similarities of fossils on these continents were due to the appearance and  disappearance of the connecting land bridges.
    
1.        According  to paragraph 2, Eduard Suess believed that similarities of plant and animal fossils on the southern  continents were due to
  
A.      living in  the southern climate
  
B.      crossing  the land bridges
  
C.       fossilization  in the coal layers
  
D.      movements  of the supercontinent
  
  Paragraph 3  
The American geologist Frank Taylor published a  pamphlet in 1910 presenting his own theory of continental  drift. He explained the formation of  mountain ranges as a result  of the lateral movements of continents. He also envisioned the present-day continents  as parts of larger polar continents that  eventually broke apart and migrated toward equator after Earth’s rotation was supposedly slowed by gigantic tidal forces. According to Taylor, these  tidal forces were generated when Earth’s gravity captured the Moon about  100 million years ago.  Although we know that Taylor’s explanation of continental drift is incorrect, one of his most significant  contributions was his suggestion that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge—an underwater  mountain chain discovered by the 1872-1876 British HMS Challenger expeditions—might mark the site at which an  ancient continent broke apart, forming the present –day Atlantic Ocean.
    
2.       According  to paragraph 3, Frank Taylor believed that
  
A.      present-day  continents broke off from larger continents and drifted toward the  poles due to tidal forces
  
B.      the lateral  shifting of continents caused the formation of mountain ranges
  
C.       polar  continents began to join together when Earth’s gravity captured the Moon 100 million years ago
  
D.      Earth’s  gravity and speed of rotation created large polar continents
    
3.      Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph  3 about the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?
  
A.      It was once  above sea level.
  
B.      It formed  at the same time that Earth’s gravity captured the Moon.
  
C.       It was much  more extensive when it was first formed than it is today.
  
D.      It was  unknown before the HMS Challenger voyages.
    
4.      The word “generated”  in the passage is closest in meaning to
  
A.      strengthened
  
B.      released
  
C.       produced
  
D.      present
  
  Paragraph 4  
However, it is Alfred Wegener, a German  meteorologist, who is generally  credited with developing the hypothesis of continental drift. In his monumental  book, The Origin of  Continents and Oceans (1915), Wegener proposed that all landmasses were  originally united into a single  supercontinent that he named “Pangaea.” Wegner portrayed his grand  concept of continental movement in a series  of maps showing  the breakup of Pangaea and the movement of various  continents to their present-day  locations. What evidence did Wegener use to support his hypothesis of continental drift? First, Wegener noted that the shorelines of continents fit together, forming a large  supercontinent and that marine, nonmarine, and glacial rock sequences of Pennsylvanian to Jurassic ages  are almost identical for all Gondwana continents, strongly indicating that  they were joined together at one  time. Furthermore, mountain ranges and glacial deposits seem to match  up in such a way that suggests continents could have  once been a single  landmass. And last, many of the same extinct plant and animal groups  are found today on widely separated continents, indicating that the continents must have been in proximity  at one time. Wegener argued that this vast  amount of evidence from a variety  of sources surely  indicated the continents must have been close together  at one time in the past.
  
5.        The word “monumental” in the passage is closest  in meaning to
  
A.      final
  
B.      persuasive
  
C.       well-known
  
D.      great and significant
  
  
6.      The word “portrayed”  in the passage is closest in meaning to
  
A.      proved
  
B.      formed
  
C.       depicted
  
D.      defended
    
7.       The word “vast”  in the passage is closest in meaning to
  
A.      enormous
  
B.      significant
  
C.       convincing
  
D.      additional
    
8.      According to paragraph 4, Wegener felt  confident that his theory are  correct in part because
  
A.      contemporary  scientists were unable to successfully challenge his evidence
  
B.      many  different types of evidence seemed to support his theory
  
C.       his theory  accounted for phenomena that earlier theories could not explain
  
D.      he had used  the most advanced techniques available to gather his evidence
    
9.      According to paragraph 4, Wegener pointed to  all of the following in support  of his theory of continental drift EXCEPT:
  
A.      Plants and  animals now living on some continents appear to be descended from plants and animals that originated on other continents.
  
B.      Rock  sequences associated with the continents are extremely similar.
  
C.       The  coastlines of some continents seem to fit  together.
  
D.      Mountains on some continents would be adjacent to mountains on other continents if these continents were joined.
     Paragraph 5  
Alexander Du Toit, a South African geologist  was one of Wegener’s ardent  supporters. He noted that fossils of the Permian freshwater reptile “Mesosaurus” occur in rocks of the same age in both Brazil and South Africa. Because the physiology of  freshwater and marine animals is completely different, it is hard to imagine how a freshwater reptile could have  swum across the Atlantic Ocean and then found a freshwater environment  nearly identical to its former habitat. Furthermore, if Mesosaurus could have swum across the ocean, its fossil  remains should occur in other localities besides Brazil and  South Africa. It is more logical to assume that Mesosaurus  lived in lakes in what are now adjacent areas of South America and Africa but were then united in a single continent.
    
10.    Why does  the author mention the fact that “the  physiology of freshwater and marine animals is completely different”?
  
A.      To explain  why Du Toit was able to determine that Mesosaurus was a freshwater reptile
  
B.      To explain  why Du Toit concluded that certain fossils in rocks in Brazil and South Africa were those of the same animal
  
C.       To cast  doubt on the idea that Mesosaurus could have swum from one landmass to another
  
D.      To show Du  Toit determined which landmass Mesosaurus originated on
    
11.    The word “logical”  in the passage is closest in meaning to
  
A.      satisfactory
  
B.      modern
  
C.       reasonable
  
D.      popular
    
12.   Which of the following can be inferred from  paragraph 5 about the Permian  Mesosaurus of Brazil and South Africa?
  
A.      It was the  dominant animal in the habitats in which it  lived
  
B.      It lived in  similar environments in both places.
  
C.       It was a  weak swimmer compared with other freshwater  reptiles.
  
D.      Its  physiology differed from that of modern freshwater reptiles.
  
  Paragraph 5  
Alexander Du Toit, a South African geologist  was one of Wegener’s ardent  supporters. ■ He noted that fossils of the Permian freshwater reptile “Mesosaurus” occur in rocks of the same age in both Brazil and South Africa. ■ Because the physiology of freshwater and marine  animals is completely different, it is hard to imagine how a freshwater  reptile could have swum across the Atlantic Ocean and then found a freshwater  environment nearly identical to its former habitat. ■ Furthermore, if Mesosaurus could have swum  across the ocean, its fossil remains should occur in other localities besides  Brazil and South Africa. ■ It is more logical to assume that Mesosaurus  lived in lakes in what are now adjacent areas of South America and Africa but  were then united in a single continent.
    
13.    Look at the  four squares [■] that indicates where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
  
In addition to supplying new geological evidence  for continental drift, he crafted  convincing arguments based on ancient life  forms.
  
Where would the  sentence best fit?
  
  
14.    Directions:  An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provides below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer  choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong  in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage  or are minor  ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
  
Several theories involving the movement of  continents were proposed in the nineteenth and early  twentieth centuries
  
  Answer Choices

  
A.      Early maps showing the coastlines of South America  and Africa inspired Eduard Suess to search for  fossil evidence that today’s southern continents  had once been joined in a single landmass.
  
B.      To Eduard  Suess, continental drift accounted for the presence of the same types of fossils on different  continents that had at times been connected  by land bridges.
  
C.       Du Toit’s  study of the freshwater reptile Mesosaurus added to the already considerable body of evidence  that Alfred Wegener had gathered in support  of the idea of continental drift.
  
D.      Frank Taylor  expanded on Eduard  Suess’s theory of continental drift  by arguing that tidal forces 100 million years ago had broken  continents apart and caused the rise of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
  
E.       Alfred  Wegener, who first developed the theory of continental drift argued that all landmasses were  originally part of a supercontinent that broke up into separate continents.
  
F.       Early theories of continental drift  were not widely  accepted at the time  because they failed to explain why continents moved.

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