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[机经题库答案] 托福阅读环境类真题140427CN-P2原文+题目汇总

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发表于 2017-4-21 15:24 |显示全部楼层
类别:环境类
真题140427CN-P2
Title:The Climate of Japan
At the most general level,  two major climatic forces determine Japan’s weather. Prevailing westerly winds  move across Eurasia, sweep over the Japanese islands, and continue eastward across the Pacific Ocean.  In addition, great  cyclonic airflows (masses  of rapidly circulating air) that arise over the  western equatorial Pacific move in a wheel-like fashion northeastward across Japan and nearby regions. During  winter months heavy  masses of cold air from Siberia dominate the weather around Japan. Persistent cold winds skim across the Sea of Japan from the northwest, picking up moisture that they deposit as several feet of snow on  the western side of the mountain ranges on Honshu  Island. As the cold air drops its moisture, it flows over high ridges and down eastern slopes  to bring cold, relatively dry weather to valleys and coastal plains  and cities.
  
  
In spring the Siberian  air mass warms and loses density, enabling atmospheric currents over the Pacific to steer warmer air into northeast  Asia. This warm, moisture-laden air covers most of southern Japan  during June and July. The  resulting late spring rains then give way  to a drier summer that is sufficiently hot and muggy, despite the island chain’s  northerly latitude, to allow  widespread rice cultivation.
  
  
Summer heat is followed  by the highly  unpredictable autumn rains  that accompany the violent tropical windstorms known as typhoons.  These cyclonic storms originate over the western Pacific and travel  in great clockwise arcs, initially heading  west toward the Philippines and  southern China, curving  northward later in the season. Cold weather drives these storms eastward across Japan through early autumn, revitalizing the Siberian air mass and ushering in a new annual  weather cycle.
  
  
This yearly cycle has played a key role in shaping Japanese  civilization. It has assured the islands  ample precipitation, ranging irregularly from more than 200 centimeters  annually in parts of the southwest to about 100 in the northeast and averaging 180 for the country  as a whole. The moisture  enables the islands  to support uncommonly lush forest  cover, but the combination of precipitous slopes  and heavy rainfall also gives the islands one of the  world’s highest rates  of natural erosion, intensified by both human  activity and the natural shocks  of earthquakes and volcanism. These factors have given Japan  its wealth of sedimentary basins,  but they have also  made mountainsides extremely susceptible to erosion and landslides and hence generally unsuitable for agricultural manipulation.
  
  
The island  chain’s mountains backbone and great  length from north  to south produce  climatic diversity that has contributed to regional differences. Generally sunny winters  along the Pacific seaboard have made habitation there relatively pleasant. Along the Sea of Japan,  on the other  hand, cold, snowy winters have discouraged settlement. Furthermore,  although annual precipitation is high in that region, much of it comes as snow and rushes to the sea as spring runoff, leaving little moisture for farming.
  
  
Summer weather  patterns in northern  Honshu, and especially along the Sea of Japan, have also discouraged agriculture. The area is subject  to the yamase effect, when cool air from the north sometimes lowers temperatures sharply  and damages farm production. The impact of this effect has been  especially great on rice cultivation because, if it is to grow well, the rice  grown in Japan requires a mean summer  temperature of 20° centigrade or higher.  A drop of 2°-3° can lead to a  30-50 percent drop in rice yield, and the yamase effect is capable of exceeding that level. This  yamase effect does not, however, extend very far south, where  most precipitation comes in the  form of rain and the bulk of it in spring, summer,  and fall, when most useful for cultivation. Even the autumn typhoons, which deposit most of their  moisture along the southern seaboard, are beneficial because  they promote the start of the winter crops that for centuries have been grown in southern Japan.
  
  
In short, for the past two millennia, the climate in general and  patterns of precipitation in  particular have encouraged the Japanese to cluster their settlements along the southern coast, most densely  along the sheltered Inland Sea, moving  into the northeast. There the limits  that topography imposed on  production have been tightened by climate, with the result that agricultural output  has been more modest and less reliable, making the risk of crop failure and hardship commensurately greater.
  
  
Paragraph 1
  
At the most general level,  two major climatic forces determine Japan’s weather. Prevailing westerly winds  move across Eurasia, sweep over the Japanese islands, and continue eastward across the Pacific Ocean.  In addition, great  cyclonic airflows (masses  of rapidly circulating air) that arise over the  western equatorial Pacific move in a wheel-like fashion northeastward across Japan and nearby regions. During winter months heavy masses of cold air from Siberia dominate the weather around Japan. Persistent cold winds skim across the Sea of Japan from the northwest, picking up moisture that they deposit as several feet of snow on  the western side of the mountain ranges  on Honshu Island.  As the cold air drops  its moisture, it flows over high ridges and down eastern slopes  to bring cold, relatively dry weather to valleys and coastal plains  and cities.
  
  
1.        According  to paragraph 1, all of the following are true of the cold  air from Siberia EXCEPT:
  
¡ It gathers  moisture as it moves across the Sea of Japan.
  
¡ It is  responsible for the snow that falls on the western side of Honshu Island.
  
¡ It is  warmed by the cyclonic airflows from the south that mix with it.
  
¡ It is responsible for the cold,  dry weather of the eastern  valleys and coastal  plains and cities. Paragraph 1 is marked with an  arrow [→].
  
  
Paragraph 2
  
In spring the Siberian  air mass warms and loses density, enabling atmospheric currents  over the Pacific to steer warmer air into northeast  Asia. This warm, moisture-laden air covers most of southern Japan during June and July. The resulting late spring rains then give way to a drier summer that is  sufficiently hot and muggy, d espite the island chain’s northerly latitude,  to allow widespread rice cultivation.
  
  
2.       The word “enabling”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡  preparing
  
¡  requiring
  
¡  allowing
  
¡  distributing
  
  
3.                    Why  does the author include the phrase “despite the island chain’s northerly  latitude” in the paragraph?
  
¡ To indicate that one would not expect such hot,  muggy weather at Japan’s latitude
  
¡ To compare Japan’s climate to the climates of  more northerly latitudes
  
¡ To give a reason for the hot, muggy weather experienced in Japan during the summer
  
¡ To explain why Japan’s climate is only suitable  for rice cultivation
  
  
Paragraph 3
  
Summer heat is followed  by the highly  unpredictable autumn rains  that accompany the violent tropical windstorms known as typhoons.  These cyclonic storms originate over the western Pacific and travel  in great clockwise arcs, initially heading  west toward the Philippines and  southern China, curving  northward later in the season. Cold weather drives these storms eastward across Japan through early autumn,  revitalizing the Siberian air mass and ushering in a new annual weather cycle.
  
  
4.        According to paragraph 3, all of the  following are true of autumn storms EXCEPT:
  
¡ They  involve rain combined with tropical windstorms
  
¡ Cyclonic  storms have a predictable pattern of travel.
  
¡ Their  movement creates a weather cycle that repeats itself.
  
¡ They begin as northern Siberian air masses  with consistent rains following the summer heat.
  
Paragraph 3 is marked with an arrow [→].
  
  
Paragraph 4
  
This yearly cycle has played a key role in shaping Japanese  civilization. It has assured the islands  ample precipitation, ranging irregularly from more than 200 centimeters  annually in parts of the southwest to about 100 in the northeast and averaging 180 for the country  as a whole. The moisture  enables the islands  to support uncommonly lush forest  cover, but the combination of precipitous slopes  and heavy rainfall also gives the islands one of the  world’s highest  rates of natural erosion, intensified by both  human activity and the natural shocks of earthquakes and volcanism. These factors  have given Japan  its wealth of sedimentary basins,  but they have also  made mountainsides extremely susceptible to erosion  and landslides and hence generally  unsuitable for agricultural manipulation.
  
  
5.        All of the following are  mentioned in paragraph 4 as contributing to the high rate of erosion in  the Japanese islands EXCEPT:
  
¡ very  steep slopes and heavy rainfall
  
¡  intense agricultural manipulation
  
¡  earthquakes and volcanic activities
  
¡  human activity
  
Paragraph  4 is marked with an arrow [→].
  
  
6.        The  word “susceptible to” in the passage  is closet in meaning to
  
¡ slow  to replace losses from
  
¡ likely  to be affected by
  
¡ unable  to benefit from
  
¡ well-known for
  
  
Paragraph 5
  
The island  chain’s mountains backbone and great  length from north  to south produce  climatic diversity that has contributed to regional differences. Generally sunny winters  along the Pacific seaboard have made habitation there relatively pleasant. Along the Sea of Japan,  on the other  hand, cold, snowy winters have discouraged settlement. Furthermore,  although annual precipitation is high in that region, much of it comes as snow and  rushes to the sea as spring runoff,  leaving little moisture for farming.
  
  
7.        According to paragraph 5,  which of the following is a major factor in the limited habitation in the area along the Sea of Japan?
  
¡ It has  too many mountains.
  
¡ It is  vulnerable to floods during spring runoff.
  
¡ Its  climate is highly irregular and unpredictable.
  
¡  It is  cold and snowy during winter.
  
Paragraph 5 is marked with an arrow [→].
  
  
Paragraph 6
  
Summer weather  patterns in northern  Honshu, and especially along the Sea of Japan, have also discouraged agriculture. The area is subject  to the yamase effect, when cool air from the north sometimes lowers temperatures sharply  and damages farm production. The impact of this effect has been  especially great on rice cultivation because, if it is to grow well, the rice  grown in Japan requires a mean summer  temperature of 20° centigrade or higher.  A drop of 2°-3° can lead to a  30-50 percent drop in rice yield, and the yamase effect is capable of exceeding that level.  This yamase effect does not, however,  extend very far south, where most precipitation comes in the form of rain and the bulk of it in  spring, summer, and fall, when most  useful for cultivation. Even the autumn typhoons, which deposit most of their  moisture along the southern seaboard, are beneficial because they promote the start of the winter  crops that for centuries have  been grown in southern Japan.
  
  
8.        According to paragraph 6,  how can the yamase effect lead to  lower rice production in northern  Honshu?
  
¡ It can  cause temperatures to drop below the level required for rice to grow well.
  
¡ It can  limit the amount of summer rainfall, resulting in less water for cultivation.
  
¡  It can damage a large portion of the land on  which rice is grown.
  
¡  It can  prevent rice cultivation during sessions other than summer.
  
Paragraph 6 is marked with an arrow [→].
  
  
9.       Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 6 about farming  in southern Japan?
  
¡  Farming is limited to rice cultivation.
  
¡  Farming is difficult because of the yamase  effect.
  
¡  Farming takes place throughout the year.
  
¡  Farming  suffers from the effects of autumn typhoons.
  
Paragraph 6 is marked with an arrow [→].
  
  
10.    The  word “exceeding” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡ almost reaching
  
¡ going beyond
  
¡ maintaining
  
¡ reducing
  
  
Paragraph 7
  
In short, for the past two millennia, the climate in general and  patterns of precipitation in  particular have encouraged the Japanese to cluster their settlements along the southern coast, most densely  along the sheltered Inland Sea, moving  into the northeast. There the limits  that topography imposed on  production have been tightened by climate, with the result that agricultural output  has been more modest and less reliable, making the risk of crop failure and hardship commensurately greater.
  
  
11.   The word “cluster”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡  build
  
¡  group
  
¡  move
  
¡  expand
  
  
12.   Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
  
¡ Agricultural  production has been more successful in northeastern Japan than along the Inland Sea, where topography and  climate make life difficult for people.
  
¡ Topography and climate have combined  to limit agricultural production in northeastern Japan, resulting in an increased risk of  crop failure and hardship.
  
¡ Along  the Inland Sea, where topography makes the climate more severe, decreased agricultural output has  resulted from crop failure and hardship.
  
¡ The  risk of crop failure in northeastern Japan has caused greater hardship than have  climate and topography.
  
  
Paragraph 4
  
This yearly  cycle has played  a key role in shaping Japanese civilization. ■It has assured the islands  ample precipitation, ranging irregularly from more than 200 centimeters  annually in parts of the southwest  to about 100 in the northeast and averaging 180 for the country as a whole.  ■The moisture enables the islands to support uncommonly lush forest cover,  but the combination of precipitous slopes and heavy rainfall also  gives the islands one of the world’s highest rates of natural erosion,  intensified by both human activity and the natural shocks of earthquakes and  volcanism. ■These factors have given Japan its wealth of sedimentary basins,  but they have also made mountainsides extremely susceptible to erosion and  landslides and hence generally unsuitable for agricultural manipulation. ■
  
  
13.   Look at the four squares  [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the  passage.
  Such a large amount of rainfall  has both positive and negative effects on the environment of the  Japanese islands.  
  
Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square  [■] to add the sentence to the  passage.
  
  
14.   Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary  of the passage is provided  below. Complete the summary  by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas  in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage  or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
  
Drag your choices to the spaces  where they belong. To review  the passage, click  on View Text.
  
                  
            
Japans yearly weather cycle influences settlement patterns and agriculture across      the islands.
      
      
      
      
      
      
      
  

              
  Answer Choices  
¡   Cold, westerly winds from Siberia and cyclonic airflows from the Pacific Ocean provide ample rainfall for farming but contribute to  high rates of erosion.
  
  
¡   Settlements are most concentrated along the Pacific seaboard to the south, where climate and topography are more suitable for crop cultivation than along the Sea of Japan.
  
  
¡  The yamase effect has a  great impact on rice growing in northern Japan but does not affect cultivation  in southern Japan, where precipitation comes in the form of rain rather than snow.
  
  
¡   Japan’s yearly weather  cycle makes farming possible only  in the summer, as the effects of the  Siberian air mass result in winters that are too cold and snowy for agriculture.
  
  
¡   Agricultural practices that stabilize sediments have reduced erosion and  landslides and allowed the growth  of lush forests in Japan.
  
  
¡   Climate changes during the last two millennia have  caused the Japanese to move their  settlements toward the northeast,  where the climate is more favorable to agriculture.
  

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