小站论坛_托福论坛

[机经题库答案] 托福阅读经济类真题150131CN-P1原文+题目汇总

483
1

Rank: 19Rank: 19Rank: 19

排名8

小站金币
40896
发表于 2017-4-21 17:12 |显示全部楼层
类别:经济类
真题150131CN-P1
Title:Effects of the Commercial Revolution
In the third and the second  millennia B.C. long-distance trade supposedly had the character of an expedition. By the start of the last  millennium B.C., however, a new  approach to engaging in such trade emerged. Based on the principle of colorization, it was pioneered by the Phoenicians and Greeks, who established colonies along the Mediterranean Sea.  The new approach to long-distance  trade, known as the commercial revolution, led to changes in a number of  political and economic patterns.
  
  
For the first time,  the planting of colonies in distant lands  became possible. The Phoenician  settlements in the central and western Mediterranean, such as Carthage, and the slightly later establishment of Greek colonies are early examples, while the settlement of south Arabians in Eritrea around the middle of the last  millennium marks the subsequent spread  of this sort of commercial consequence to the Horn of  Africa. In the third or second millennia B. C., a state such  as Egypt might colonize areas outside its heartland, such as Nubia.  But this colonization comprised military outposts and ethnic  settlements that were  planted to hold  the contiguous territories of a land  empire, not distant localities far separated from the home  country.
  
  
The commercial revolution  constructed the economic basis as well for  a new kind of town or city, an urban center  that above all serviced trade  and was home to the crafts and occupational  specializations that went  along with commercial development. The urban  locations of earlier times commonly drew trade simply  because their populations had included a privileged elite of  potential consumers. Such towns had arisen in the first place as political  and religious centers of the society, they attracted population because power and influence resides  there and access  to position and wealth  could be gained  through service to the royal  or priestly leadership.
  
  
Wherever the effects of the commercial revolution penetrated over the last  millennium B. C., kings and emperors increasingly lost their ability to treat trade  as a royalty sponsored activity, intended to preserve the commodities of trade as the privileges  of immemorial power and position.  Instead, their policies shifted toward controlling geographical accessibility  to the products of commerce and to  ensuring security and other conditions that attracted and enhanced the  movement of goods. No longer could kings rely on agriculturally supported and religiously based claims to an ability to protect their  lands and people; now they also  had to overtly support  the material prosperity of their people  compared to other societies. And rather than exerting a monopoly over prestige commodities, as had Egyptian kings of the third and second millennia, and  redistributing such commodities in ways designed  to reinforce the allegiance of  their subjects and enhance the awesomeness of their position, rulers turned  to the taxation of trade and to the creation and control of currency, more and more relying on duties  and other revenues to support  the apparatus of the state.  It was no historical accident that the first metal  coinage in the world began  to be made in eighth-century Anatolia (modern Turkey) and that the use of coins rapidly spread  with the expanding commercial revolution. The material bases and the legitimizations of state authority as we  know them today had begun to take shape.
  
  
The commercial revolution tended also to spread  a particular pattern of exchange. The early commercial centers of the Mediterranean  most characteristically offered manufactured  goods—purple dye, metal goods, wine, olive oil, and so forth—for the raw materials or the partially processed natural products of other regions. As  the commercial revolution spread, this  kind of exchange tended to spread with it, with the recently added areas of  commerce providing new kinds of raw materials or new sources  for familiar products of the natural  world, and the longer established commercial  centers—which might themselves have lain at the margins of this transformation—producing, or acting  as the intermediaries—producing, or acting as the intermediaries in the transmission of, manufactured commodities. India, for instance, had developed by the tum of the ear into  a major exporter of its own  cotton textiles, as well as naturally occurring materials, such  as gems of various kinds, and at the same time its merchants were the intermediaries of the silk trade.
  
  
Paragraph 1
  
In the third and the second  millennia B.C. long-distance trade supposedly had the character of an expedition. By the start of the last  millennium B.C., however, a new  approach to engaging in such trade  emerged. Based on the principle of colonization, it was pioneered by the Phoenicians and Greeks, who established colonies  along the Mediterranean Sea. The new approach to long-distance trade, known as the commercial revolution,  led to changes in a number of political  and economic patterns.
  
  
1.        The  word “pioneered” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡  adopted
  
¡  described
  
¡  demonstrated
  
¡  introduced
  
  
Paragraph 2
  
For the first time,  the planting of colonies in distant lands  became possible. The Phoenician  settlements in the central and western Mediterranean, such as Carthage, and the slightly later establishment of Greek colonies are early examples, while the settlement of south Arabians in Eritrea around the middle of the last  millennium marks the subsequent spread of this sort of commercial consequence to the Horn of  Africa. In the third or second millennia B. C., a state such  as Egypt might colonize areas outside its heartland, such as Nubia.  But this colonization comprised military outposts and ethnic settlements that were planted  to hold the  contiguous territories of a land empire, not distant localities far separated from  the home country.
  
  
2.       All of the following groups are mentioned in paragraph 2 as establishing distant trading  outposts in the last millennium B. C. EXCEPT
  
¡  the Greeks
  
¡  the Egyptians
  
¡   the Phoenicians
  
¡   the south  Arabians
  
  
3.       The word “subsequent”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡   initial
  
¡   anticipated
  
¡   later
  
¡   increasing
  
  
4.       In  paragraph 2, why does the author mention the colonization of Nubia by the Egyptians?
  
¡   To prove  that colonization was first carried out by the military
  
¡   To indicate  that Egypt was a major military power in the third and second millennia B. C.
  
¡  To illustrate how large the  geographic area of colonization had become over several millennia
  
¡  To show that the purpose of  colonization during the third and second millennia B. C. differed from that of the last millennium  B. C.
  
  
5.        The  word “comprised” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡  resulted in
  
¡  focused on
  
¡  was  inspired by
  
¡  consisted of
  
  
Paragraph 3
  
The commercial revolution constructed the economic basis as well for a new kind of town or city, an urban center  that above all serviced trade  and was home to the crafts and occupational  specializations that went  along with commercial development. The urban  locations of earlier times commonly drew trade simply  because their populations had included a privileged elite of  potential consumers. Such towns had arisen in the first place as political  and religious centers of the society, they attracted population because power and influence resides  there and access  to position and wealth  could be gained  through service to the royal  or priestly leadership.
  
  
6.        According to paragraph 3, before the emergence of the commercial  revolution, trade
  
¡  enabled  craftspeople and occupational specialists to gain power and influence in society
  
¡  centered  on the ruling elite and those groups closely associated with them
  
¡  was  primarily conducted by people serving the royal and religious leadership
  
¡  was a  major reason why urban centers were established
  
  
Paragraph 4
  
Wherever the effects of the commercial revolution penetrated over the last  millennium B. C., kings and emperors increasingly lost their ability to treat trade  as a royalty sponsored activity, intended to preserve the commodities of trade as the privileges  of immemorial power and position.  Instead, their policies shifted toward controlling geographical accessibility  to the products of commerce and to  ensuring security and other conditions that attracted and enhanced the  movement of goods. No longer could kings rely on agriculturally supported and religiously based claims to an ability to protect their  lands and people; now they also  had to overtly support  the material prosperity of their people  compared to other societies. And rather than exerting a monopoly over prestige commodities, as had Egyptian kings of the third and second millennia, and  redistributing such commodities in ways designed  to reinforce the allegiance of their subjects and enhance the  awesomeness of their position, rulers turned to the taxation of trade and to the creation and control of currency, more and more relying on duties  and other revenues to support  the apparatus of the state.  It was no historical accident that the first metal  coinage in the world began  to be made in eighth-century Anatolia (modern Turkey) and that the use of coins rapidly spread  with the expanding commercial revolution. The material bases and the legitimizations of state authority as we know them today  had begun to take shape.
  
  
7.       The word “enhanced”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡   improved
  
¡   influenced
  
¡   protected
  
¡   necessitated
  
  
8.        The  word “reinforce” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡  demand
  
¡  strengthen
  
¡  earn
  
¡  repay
  
  
9.        According to paragraph 4, as the commercial  revolution expanded, rulers focused on
  
¡  taxation  and the development and control of money
  
¡  monopolizing  prestige commodities
  
¡  distributing  prestige commodities to ensure the allegiance of their subjects
  
¡  protecting  their land to legitimize their authority
  
  
10.    What can be inferred from paragraph 4 about Anatolia?
  
¡  Its  merchants specialized in the trading of prestige commodities.
  
¡  It was  the first place to use currency for the  taxation of trade.
  
¡  It  contained enormous supplies of metal compared with other states in the region.
  
¡  Trade remained a royally  sponsored activity there long after the emergence of the commercial revolution.
  
  
Paragraph 5
  
The commercial revolution tended also  to spread a particular pattern of exchange. The  early commercial centers of  the Mediterranean most characteristically offered manufactured goods—purple dye, metal goods, wine, olive oil,  and so forth—for the raw materials  or the partially processed natural  products of other regions. As the commercial revolution spread, this kind of exchange tended to spread  with it, with the recently added areas of commerce providing new kinds  of raw materials or new sources  for familiar products of the natural world, and the longer established commercial  centers— which might themselves have lain at the margins of this transformation—producing, or acting  as the intermediaries in the transmission of, manufactured commodities. India, for instance, had developed by the turn  of the era  into a major  exporter of its own cotton textiles, as well as  naturally occurring materials, such as gems of various kinds, and at the same  time its merchants were the intermediaries of the silk trade.
  
  
11.   Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
  
¡  During  the commercial revolution, newer centers of trade acted as intermediaries in the exchange of different types of  manufactured goods.
  
¡  Longer-established  trading centers were familiar with the unprocessed products of the natural world, but depended on other areas  as sources for  manufactured commodities.
  
¡  Eventually, the commercial revolution led to a trading system whereby newly  established commercial  centers provided the resources needed for the production of goods while older  trading centers produced the goods or assisted in their distribution.
  
¡  The  commercial revolution depended on a system  of trade where consumers valued novelty in the manufactured goods they acquired, but,  at the same time, they wanted to be familiar  with the natural products they received.
  
  
12.   Paragraph  5 supports which of the following statements about Indian merchants at the time of the commercial revolution?
  
¡  They imported cotton, silk, and  other high-quality fabrics  intended for the  Indian market.
  
¡   They obtained various kinds of gems from  intermediaries in the silk trade.
  
¡  They  were simultaneously exporters of manufactured and natural products and intermediaries for goods produced elsewhere.
  
¡  They created  a highly sophisticated textile industry at the same time that  they were engaged  in the processing of natural products.
  
  
Paragraph 3
  
■The commercial revolution constructed the economic basis as well for a new kind of town or city, an urban center that above all serviced trade and was home to the crafts and occupational specializations that went  along with commercial development. ■The urban locations of earlier times commonly drew trade simply  because their populations had included a privileged elite of  potential consumers. ■Such towns had arisen in the first place as political  and religious centers of the society, they attracted population because power and influence resides  there and access to position and wealth  could be gained  through service to the royal  or priestly leadership.■
  
  
13.   Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence  can be added to the passage.
  
  It was significantly different from the typical  centers that existed  before the commercial revolution.  
  
Where would  the sentence best fit? Click  on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.
  
  
14.   Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary  of the passage is provided  below. Complete the summary  by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in  the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage  or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
  
Drag your choices to the spaces  where they belong. To review  the passage, click  on View Text.
  
                  
            
The commercial revolution of      the last millennium B. C. resulted      in both political and economic changes.
      
      
      
      
      
  

  
  
  
  
  Answer Choices  
  
¡  New kinds of urban centers emerged that focused  on commerce and encouraged craft and occupational specializations.
  
¡  Rulers in the last millennium  began to promote the material  prosperity of their people through  support and improvement of commerce.
  
¡  More established commercial  centers supplied final products to newer regions in exchange for raw materials.
  
¡  During the first millennium B. C.,  new political and religious centers  arose that based their power on their ability to protect their lands and people.
  
¡  The focus on raw materials switched the balance  of power from the manufacturing centers to the control of the exporters  of the natural products.
  
¡  Military occupation of neighboring lands became a major means of expanding trade into  new territories.
  

相关帖子 | 楼主帖子

最新 托福机经 雅思机经 免费下载
回复

使用道具 举报

寒假班来袭,助你高分取胜

Rank: 50Rank: 50Rank: 50Rank: 50Rank: 50Rank: 50Rank: 50Rank: 50

排名3

小站金币
728361
发表于 2017-4-21 18:44 | 小站社区iPhone客户端

扫一扫,你也能把小站论坛随身带着走

|显示全部楼层
谢谢分享,来复习喽。
回复

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 快速注册

领取福利

我们将以您绑定的 (****)
作为接收批改短信的默认手机号码

订阅小站最新精品课程信息

领取福利

输入您的手机号码,批改动态随时掌握!

订阅小站最新精品课程信息

您可以在设置—密码安全—绑定手机中随时修改您的手机号码

领取福利

还差最后一步了!只要填写完邮箱即可同时获得批改短信提醒小站精品课程信息两大福利了!

领取福利
快捷菜单

  Copyright 2009-2017 小站论坛,All Rights Reserved 小站教育  沪ICP备15003744号-3   网站地图   最新帖子 联系我们 | 站点统计 | 版权声明 | 免责及隐私声明

订阅最新机经

选择托福机经及考试日期进行预约,预约后机经将在考试前3-5天左右通过邮件和短信形式推送

热门机经*
考试日期*
立即订阅