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发表于 2017-4-21 17:13 |显示全部楼层
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TPO10-P3
Title:Seventeenth-Century European Economic Growth
In the late sixteenth century and into the seventeenth,  Europe continued the growth that had lifted it out of the relatively less  prosperous medieval period (from the mid 400s to the late 1400s). Among the  key factors behind this growth were increased agricultural productivity and  an expansion of trade.
  
Populations cannot grow unless the rural economy can  produce enough additional food to feed more people. During the sixteenth  century, farmers brought more land into cultivation at the expense of forests  and fens (low-lying wetlands). Dutch land reclamation in the Netherlands in  the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries provides the most spectacular example  of the expansion of farmland: the Dutch reclaimed more than 36.000 acres from  1590 to 1615 alone.
  
Much of the potential for European economic development  lay in what at first glance would seem to have been only sleepy villages.  Such villages, however, generally lay in regions of relatively advanced  agricultural production, permitting not only the survival of peasants but  also the accumulation of an agricultural surplus for investment. They had  access to urban merchants, markets, and trade routes.
  
Increased agricultural production in turn facilitated  rural industry, an intrinsic part of the expansion of industry. Woolens and  textile manufacturers, in particular, utilized rural cottage (in-home)  production, which took advantage of cheap and plentiful rural labor. In the  German states, the ravages of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) further moved  textile production into the countryside. Members of poor peasant families  spun or wove cloth and linens at home for scant remuneration in an attempt to  supplement meager family income.
  
More extended trading networks also helped develop  Europe's economy in this period. English and Dutch ships carrying rye from  the Baltic states reached Spain and Portugal. Population growth generated an  expansion of small-scale manufacturing, particularly of handicrafts,  textiles, and metal production in England, Flanders, parts of northern Italy,  the southwestern German states, and parts of Spain. Only iron smelting and  mining required marshaling a significant amount of capital (wealth invested  to create more wealth).
  
The development of banking and other financial services  contributed to the expansion of trade. By the middle of the sixteenth  century, financiers and traders commonly accepted bills of exchange in place  of gold or silver for other goods. Bills of exchange, which had their origins  in medieval Italy, were promissory notes (written promises to pay a specified  amount of money by a certain date) that could be sold to third parties. In  this way, they provided credit. At mid-century, an Antwerp financier only  slightly exaggerated when he claimed, “0ne can no more trade without bills of  exchange than sail without water." Merchants no longer had to carry gold  and silver over long, dangerous journeys. An Amsterdam merchant purchasing  soap from a merchant in Marseille could go to an exchanger and pay the  exchanger the equivalent sum in guilders, the Dutch currency. The exchanger  would then send a bill of exchange to a colleague in Marseille, authorizing  the colleague to pay the Marseille merchant in the merchant's own currency  after the actual exchange of goods had taken place.
  
Bills of exchange contributed to the development of  banks, as exchangers began to provide loans. Not until the   eighteenth century, however, did such  banks as the Bank of Amsterdam and the Bank of England begin to provide capital  for business investment. Their principal function was to provide funds for  the state.
  
The rapid expansion in international trade also  benefitted from an infusion of capital, stemming largely from gold and silver  brought by Spanish vessels from the Americas. This capital financed the  production of goods, storage, trade, and even credit across Europe and  overseas. Moreover an increased credit supply was generated by investments  and loans by bankers and wealthy merchants to states and by joint-stock partnerships—an  English innovation (the first major company began in 1600). Unlike short-term  financial cooperation between investors for a single commercial undertaking,  joint-stock companies provided permanent funding of capital by drawing on the  investments of merchants and other investors who purchased shares in the  company.
  
  
Paragraph 1: In the late  sixteenth century and into the seventeenth, Europe continued the growth that  had lifted it out of the relatively less prosperous medieval period (from the  mid 400s to the late 1400s). Among the key factors behind  this growth were increased agricultural productivity and an expansion of  trade.
  
1. According to paragraph 1, what was true of  Europe during the medieval period? (2)
  
○ Agricultural productivity declined.
  
○ There was relatively little economic growth.
  
○ The general level of  prosperity declined.
  
○ Foreign trade began to play an important role in the economy.
  
  
2. The word  key in the passage is  closest in meaning to (3)
  
○ historical
  
○ many
  
○ important
  
○ hidden
  
  
Paragraph 2: Populations cannot grow unless the rural  economy can produce enough additional food to feed more people. During the  sixteenth century, farmers brought more land into cultivation at the expense  of forests and fens (low-lying wetlands). Dutch land reclamation in the  Netherlands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries provides the most  spectacular example of the expansion of farmland: the Dutch reclaimed more  than 36.000 acres from 1590 to 1615 alone.
  
  
3. According to paragraph 2, one  effect of the desire to increase food production was that (4)
  
○ land was cultivated in a different way
  
○ more farmers were needed
  
○ the rural economy was weakened
  
○ forests and wetlands were used for farming
  
  
Paragraph 3: Much of the potential for European economic  development lay in what at first glance would seem to have been only sleepy  villages. Such villages, however, generally lay in regions of relatively  advanced agricultural production, permitting not only the survival of peasants  but also the accumulation of an agricultural surplus for investment. They had  access to urban merchants, markets, and trade routes.
  
  
4. According to paragraph 3, what  was one reason villages had such great economic potential?(1)
  
○ Villages were located in regions where agricultural  production was relatively advanced.
  
○ Villages were relatively small in population and size  compared with urban areas.
  
○ Some village inhabitants made investments in industrial  development.
  
○ Village inhabitants established markets within their  villages.
  
  
Paragraph 4: Increased  agricultural production in turn facilitated rural industry, an intrinsic part  of the expansion of industry. Woolens and textile manufacturers, in  particular, utilized rural cottage (in-home) production, which took advantage  of cheap and plentiful rural labor. In the German states, the ravages of the  Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) further moved textile production into the  countryside. Members of poor peasant families spun or wove cloth and linens  at home for scant remuneration in an attempt to supplement meager  family income.
  
  
5. Paragraph 4 supports the idea  that increased agricultural production was important for the expansion of industry primarily  because it (1)
  
○ increased the number of available workers in rural  areas
  
○ provided new types of raw materials for use by industry
  
○ resulted in an improvement in the health of the rural  cottage workers used by manufacturers
  
○ helped repair some of the ravages of the Thirty Years’  War
  
  
6. The word  “meager” in the passage is  closest in meaning to (2)
  
○ very necessary
  
○ very low
  
○ traditional
  
○ primary
  
  
Paragraph 5: More extended trading networks also helped  develop Europe's economy in this period. English and Dutch ships  carrying rye from the Baltic states reached Spain and Portugal.  Population growth generated an expansion of small-scale manufacturing,  particularly of handicrafts, textiles, and metal production in England,  Flanders, parts of northern Italy, the southwestern German states, and parts  of Spain. Only iron smelting and mining required marshaling a significant  amount of capital (wealth invested to create more wealth).
  
  
7. Why does the author mention that “English and Dutch ships carrying rye from  the Baltic states reached Spain and Portugal”?(2)
  
○ To suggest that England and the Netherlands  were the two most important trading nations in seventeenth-century Europe
  
○ To suggest how extensive trading relations were
  
○ To contrast the importance of agricultural products  with manufactured products
  
○ To argue that shipping introduced a range of new  products
  
  
Paragraph 6: The development of banking and other  financial services contributed to the expansion of trade. By the middle of  the sixteenth century, financiers and traders commonly accepted bills of exchange  in place of gold or silver for other goods. Bills of exchange, which had  their origins in medieval Italy, were promissory notes (written   promises to pay a specified amount of  money by a certain date) that could be sold to third parties. In this way,  they provided credit. At mid-century, an Antwerp financier only slightly  exaggerated when he claimed, “0ne can no more trade without bills of exchange  than sail without water." Merchants no longer had to carry gold and  silver over long, dangerous journeys. An Amsterdam merchant purchasing soap  from a merchant in Marseille could go to an exchanger and pay the exchanger  the equivalent sum in guilders, the Dutch currency. The exchanger would then  send a bill of exchange to a colleague in Marseille, authorizing the  colleague to pay the Marseille merchant in the merchant's own currency after  the actual exchange of goods had taken place.
  
  
8. By including the quotation in  paragraph 6 by the financier from Antwerp, the author is emphasizing that (3)
  
○ sailing was an important aspect of the economy
  
○ increasing the number of water routes made trade  possible
  
○ bills of exchange were necessary for successful trading
  
○ financiers often exaggerated the need for bills of  exchange
  
  
9. According to paragraph 6, merchants  were able to avoid the risk of carrying large amounts of gold and silver by (3)
  
○ using third parties in Marseille to buy goods for them
  
○ doing all their business by using Dutch currency
  
○ paying for their purchases  through bills of exchange
  
○ waiting to pay for goods  until the goods had been delivered
  
  
Paragraph 7: Bills of exchange contributed to the  development of banks, as exchangers began to provide loans. Not until the  eighteenth century, however, did such banks as the Bank of Amsterdam and the  Bank of England begin to provide capital for business investment. Their  principal function was to provide funds for the state.
  
  
10.  According to paragraph 7,  until the eighteenth century, it was the principal function of which of the  following to provide funds for the state? (3)
  
○ Bills of exchange
  
○ Exchangers who took loans
  
○ Banks
  
○ Business investment
  
  
Paragraph 8: The rapid expansion in international trade  also benefitted from an infusion of capital, stemming largely from gold and  silver brought by Spanish vessels from the Americas. This capital financed  the production of goods, storage, trade, and even credit across Europe and  overseas. Moreover an increased credit supply was generated by investments  and loans by bankers and wealthy merchants to states and by joint-stock  partnerships—an English innovation (the first major  company began in 1600). Unlike short-term financial cooperation between  investors for a single commercial undertaking, joint-stock companies provided  permanent funding of capital by drawing on the investments of merchants and  other investors who purchased shares in the company.
  
  
11. The phrase “an English innovation” in the passage is closest in  meaning to (1)
  
○ a new development  introduced by the English
  
○ an arrangement found only in England
  
○ a type of agreement negotiated in English
  
○ a type of partnership based on English law
  
  
12.  According to paragraph 8, each  of the following was a source of funds used to finance economic expansion  EXCEPT (2)
  
○ groups of investors  engaged in short-term financial  cooperation
  
○ the state
  
○ wealthy merchants
  
○ joint-stock companies
  
  
Paragraph 6: The development of banking and other  financial services contributed to the expansion of trade. By the middle of  the sixteenth century, financiers and traders commonly accepted bills of  exchange in place of gold or silver for other goods. Bills of exchange, which  had their origins in medieval Italy, were promissory notes (written promises  to pay a specified amount of money by a certain date) that could be sold to  third parties. In this way, they provided credit. ■At mid-century, an Antwerp  financier only slightly exaggerated when he claimed, “0ne can no more trade  without bills of exchange than sail without water." ■Merchants  no longer had to carry gold and silver over long, dangerous journeys. ■An  Amsterdam merchant purchasing soap from a merchant in Marseille could go to  an exchanger and pay the exchanger the equivalent sum in guilders, the Dutch  currency. ■The  exchanger would then send a bill of exchange to a colleague in Marseille,  authorizing the colleague to pay the Marseille merchant in the merchant's own  currency after the actual exchange of goods had taken place.
  
  
13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following  sentence could be added to the passage.
  
They could also avoid  having to identify and assess the value of a wide variety of coins issued in many different places.
  
Where would the  sentence best fit?(3)
  
  
14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the  passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer  that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not  belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the  passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2  points.
  
  
In late sixteenth-and early seventeenth-century Europe,  increased agricultural production and the expansion of trade were important  in economic growth.
  
●Bringing more land…
  
●Increases in population…
  
●The expansion of…
  
Answer choices
  
○ Bringing more land under cultivation produced enough  food to create surpluses for trade and investment  as well as for supporting the larger populations that led to the growth of  rural industry.
  
○ Most  rural villages established an arrangement with a nearby urban center that  enabled villagers to take advantage of urban  markets to sell any handicrafts they produced.
  
○ Increases in population and the expansion of trade led  to increased manufacturing, much of it small-scale  in character but some requiring significant capital investment.
  
○ Increased  capital was required for the production of goods, for storage, for trade, and  for the provision of credit throughout of Europe as well as distant markets  overseas.
  
○ Bills of exchange were invented in medieval Italy but  became less important as banks began to provide loans for merchants.
  
○ The  expansion of trade was facilitated by developments in banking and financial services  and benefitted from the huge influx of capital in the form of gold  silver from the Americas.

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