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[机经题库答案] 托福阅读农业类真题Agricultural Society in Eighteenth-Century British America原文+题目汇总

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真题140316CN-P3
Title:Agricultural Society in Eighteenth-Century British America
In the northern American colonies,  especially New England, tight-knit farming families, organized in communities of several thousand people, dotted  the landscape by the mid-eighteenth century. New Englanders staked their  future on a mixed economy. They  cleared forests for timber used in barrels, ships, houses, and barns.  They plumbed the offshore waters for fish to feed local populations. And they cultivated and grazed as much of the thin-soiled, rocky hills and bottomlands as they could  recover from the forest.
  
  
The farmers of the middle  colonies-Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey,  and New York-set their wooden  plows to much richer soils than New Englanders did. They enjoyed the additional advantage of setting an area  already partly cleared by Native Americans who had relied more on agriculture than  had New England  tribes. Thus favored, mid-Atlantic farm families produced modest surpluses of corn, wheat, beef, and pork. By the mid-eighteenth century, ships from New York and  Philadelphia were carrying these foodstuffs not only to the West Indies, always a primary market, but also to areas  that could no longer feed themselves-England, Spain, Portugal, and even New England.
  
  
In  the North, the broad ownership of land distinguished farming society from  every other agricultural region of the Western world. Although differences in circumstances and ability led gradually toward greater social  stratification, in most communities, the truly rich  and terribly poor were few and  the gap between them small compared with European society. Most  men other than indentured servants (servants contracted to work for a specific number of years) lived to  purchase or inherit a farm of at least 50 acres. With their family’s labor, they earned a decent existence and provided a small  inheritance for each of their  children. Settlers valued land highly,  for owning land ordinarily guaranteed both economic independence and political rights.
  
  
By the eighteenth century, amid widespread property  ownership, a rising population pressed  against a limited land supply, especially in New England. Family farms could not be divided and subdivided indefinitely, for it took  at least fifty  acres(of which only  a quarter could  usually be cropped)  to support a single family. In Concurd, Massachusetts, for example, the founders had worked farms  averaging about 250 acres. A century later, in the 1730s,  the average farm  had shrunk by two thirds,  as farm owners  struggled to provide  an inheritance for the three or four  sons that the  average marriage produced.
  
  
The decreasing fertility of the soil  compounded the problem  of dwindling farm  size in New England. When land had been plentiful, farmers planted crops in the same field for three years and then let it lie fallow  (unplanted) in pasture  seven years or more until it regained  its fertility. But on the smaller farms  of the eighteenth century, farmers  had reduced fallow time to only a year  or two. Such intense use of the soil reduced  crop yields, forcing  farmers to plow marginal  land or shift to livestock production.
  
  
The diminishing size and productivity of family farms  forced many New Englanders to move to the frontier or out of the area  altogether in the eighteen century. "Many  of our old towns are too full  of inhabitants for husbandry, many of them living on small shares  of land, " complained one writer.  In Concurd, one of every  four adult males  migrated from town  every decade from  the 1740s on, and in many towns migration out was even greater.  Some drifted south to New York and Pennsylvania. Others  sought opportunities as artisans in the coastal towns or took to the sea.  More headed for the  colonies, western frontier or north into  New Hampshire and the eastern  frontier of Maine.  Several thousand New England families migrated even farther  north to the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia.  Throughout New England  after the early  eighteenth century, most farmers' sons  knew that their  destiny lay elsewhere.
  
  
Wherever they took up farming,  northern cultivators engaged in agricultural work routines that were  far less intense than in the south. The growing season was much shorter, and the cultivation of cereal crops required incessant labor only  during spring planting and autumn harvesting. This less burdensome work  rhythm let many  northern cultivators to fill out their calendars with intermittent work as clockmakers, shoemakers, carpenters, and weavers.
  
  
Paragraph  1
  
In the northern American colonies,  especially New England, tight-knit farming families, organized in communities of several thousand people, dotted the landscape by the  mid-eighteenth century. New Englanders staked  their future on a mixed economy. They cleared forests  for timber used in barrels, ships,  houses, and barns.  They plumbed the  offshore waters  for fish to feed local populations. And they cultivated and grazed as much of the thin-soiled, rocky hills and bottomlands as they could  recover from the forest.
  
  
1.  Paragraph  1 mentions all of the following as economic activities that eighteenth  century New Englanders practiced EXCEPT
  
¡  raising crops
  
¡  catching fish
  
¡  trading goods
  
¡  selling timber
  
  
Paragraph 2 The farmers of the middle colonies-Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey,  and New York-set their  wooden plows to much richer  soils than New Englanders did. They enjoyed  the additional advantage of setting an area already partly cleared by Native Americans who had relied  more on agriculture than had New England tribes. Thus favored, mid-Atlantic  farm families produced modest  surpluses of corn, wheat, beef, and  pork. By the mid-eighteenth century, ships  from New York and Philadelphia were carrying these  foodstuffs not only  to the West Indies,  always a primary market, but also to areas that could no longer feed  themselves-England, Spain, Portugal, and even New England.
  
  
2.   Paragraph 1 and 2 support all of the  following statements about  the economies of British  colonies in America EXCEPT
  
¡ The  middle colonies engaged in international trade.
  
¡ The  middle colonies had agricultural advantages the northern colonies did not.
  
¡ The  northern colonies participated in a variety of economic enterprises.
  
¡  The middle colonies were less prosperous than  the northern colonies.
  
  
3.  According  to paragraph 2, one advantage that farmers in the middle colonies had over farmers in New England was better
  
¡ plows
  
¡  soil
  
¡  ways of  shipping farm products to market
  
¡  relations with local native American tribes
  
  
4.  The word “modest”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡ mixed
  
¡ moderate
  
¡ growing
  
¡ constant
  
  
Paragraph  3 In the North, the broad ownership of  land distinguished farming society from every other agricultural region of the Western  world. Although differences in circumstances and ability led gradually  toward greater social stratification, in most communities, the truly rich and terribly poor were few and  the gap between them small compared with European society. Most  men other than indentured servants (servants contracted to work for a specific number of years) lived to  purchase or inherit a farm of at least 50 acres. With their family’s labor, they earned a decent existence and provided a small  inheritance for each of their  children. Settlers valued land highly,  for owning land ordinarily guaranteed both economic independence and political rights.
  
  
5.  According  to paragraph 3 in what way did  farming society in the northern colonies differ from farming societies  in the rest of the western world
  
¡ The  differences between social classes were much  greater.
  
¡ People  lived much closer together.
  
¡ The  proportion of land owners was much higher.
  
¡ Many  more families had servants.
  
  
Paragraph  4 By  the eighteenth century, amid  widespread property ownership, a rising population  pressed against a limited land supply,  especially in New England. Family  farms could not be divided and subdivided indefinitely, for it took at least fifty acres(of  which only a quarter could  usually be cropped) to support a single family. In Concurd, Massachusetts, for example, the founders had  worked farms averaging about 250 acres. A century later, in the 1730s, the average farm had shrunk by two thirds, as farm  owners struggled to provide an inheritance for  the three or four sons  that the average marriage produced.
  
  
6.        The  word “indefinitely” in the passage is  closet in meaning to
  
¡  fairly
  
¡  safely
  
¡  more than once
  
¡  without limit
  
  
7.  Why  does author include a discussion of "Concurd, Massachusetts"
  
¡  To give  an example of the type of inheritance farm owners generally provided for their sons
  
¡  To help  explain why the farms started by the founders averaged at least 250 acres
  
¡ To indicate that  New England farms  were always inherited by the oldest  sons from their fathers
  
¡ To help illustrate how limited the overall land  supply was in New England
  
  
Paragraph  5 The  decreasing fertility of the soil compounded the  problem of dwindling farm size in New England. When land had been  plentiful, farmers planted crops in the same field for three years and  then let it lie fallow  (unplanted) in pasture  seven years or more until  it regained its fertility.  But on the smaller farms of the eighteenth century, farmers had  reduced fallow time to only a year  or two. Such intense use of the soil reduced crop yields, forcing farmers to plow marginal land  or shift to livestock production.
  
  
8.  The word “compounded”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡ added  to
  
¡ resulted from
  
¡ led to
  
¡ occurred before
  
  
9.  According  to paragraph 5, what causes the crop yields in New England to fail
  
¡ The  shift to livestock production by many farmers
  
¡ The  decreased amount of time that fields were left fallow
  
¡ The  practice of planting crops in the same field for three years in a row
  
¡ The  reduced size of the average field
  
  
Paragraph  6 The  diminishing size and productivity of family farms forced many New Englanders to move to the frontier or out of the area altogether in the eighteen century. "Many of our old towns are too full of inhabitants for husbandry, many of them living on small shares  of land, " complained one writer.  In Concurd, one  of every four adult males  migrated from town every decade from the 1740s on,  and in many  towns migration out was even  greater. Some  drifted south to New York and Pennsylvania. Others  sought opportunities as artisans in the coastal towns or took to the sea. More headed for the colonies, western frontier or north into New Hampshire and the eastern frontier of Maine. Several thousand New England  families migrated even farther north to the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia. Throughout New  England after the early eighteenth century, most farmers' sons  knew that their  destiny lay elsewhere.
  
  
10.    According to paragraph 6  why did many New Englanders move out of the area in the eighteenth century
  
¡ They  wanted to live in towns rather than on farms.
  
¡ Their  farms no longer provided them with good living.
  
¡ There  was unequal distribution of males and females in New England.
  
¡ They  were being crowded out by migrants from outside New England.
  
  
Paragraph  7 Whereever  they took up farming, northern cultivators engaged in agricultural work routines  that were far less intense than in the south. The growing season was much shorter,  and the cultivation of cereal crops required incessant labor only during  spring planting and autumn  harvesting. This less  burdensome work rhythm let many northern cultivators to fill  out their calendars with  intermittent work as clockmakers, shoemakers, carpenters, and  weavers.
  
  
11.  The word “burdensome”  in the passage is closet in meaning to
  
¡  frequent
  
¡  productive
  
¡  difficult
  
¡  well-paid
  
  
12.  Why does  the author include the information about the " intermittent work as clockmakers, shoemakers, carpenters, and weavers"  that northern cultivators engaged in?
  
¡ To suggest that northern cultivators were not as skilled at agricultural work  as southern cultivators were
  
¡ To indicate an economic effect  of the shorter northern growing season on  northern cultivators
  
¡ To challenge the claim that work routines  in the north were less intense than they were in  the south
  
¡ To emphasize that northern workers tried to change their  agriculturally centered economy
  
  
13.  Look at the four squares  [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the  passage.
  
  
Paragraph 6 The diminishing size and  productivity of family  farms forced many  New Englanders to move to the frontier or out of the area altogether in the eighteen century. "Many of our old  towns are too full of inhabitants for husbandry, many of them living on small shares  of land, " complained one writer.  In Concurd, one  of every four adult males  migrated from town every  decade from the 1740s on, and in many towns migration out was even greater.  ■Some drifted south to New York and Pennsylvania. ■Others  sought opportunities as artisans in the coastal towns or took to the sea. ■More headed for the colonies, western frontier or north into New Hampshire and the eastern frontier of  Maine.  ■Several thousand New England  families migrated even  farther north to the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia.  Throughout New England after the early eighteenth century, most  farmers' sons knew  that their destiny lay elsewhere.
  
  A third  of Northampton's men  over 21 years  old left, joining  the stream of departing New Englanders.  
  
Where would  the sentence best  fit? Click on a square  [■] to add the sentence to the passage.
  
  
14.  Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary  of the passage is provided  below.
  
  
Complete the summary by selecting  the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some  answer choices do not belong in the summary  because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage  or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
  
  
Drag your choices to the spaces  where they belong. To review  the passage, click  on View Text.
  
            
In  eighteenth  century  British  America  agriculture       was  more  productive  and       profitable  in  the      middle colonies than in      New England.
      
      
      
      
      
  
  
  
  
  
Answer Choices
  
  
¡   By the mid-eighteenth century shipping had become  important to the economy of the  middle colonies where farmers produced large surpluses of foodstuffs for trade with Europe and elsewhere.
  
  
¡   The labor provided by indentured servants allowed most New England farmers to raise enough food and livestock to earn  a living and leave a comfortable inheritance for their children.
  
  
¡   Declining farm size forced farmers to greatly reduce the time fields were  left fallow, and this more intensive use of relatively poor soil resulted in seriously decreased  fertility and lowered crop yields.
  
  
¡   Land ownership was far more important to New Englanders than to people in the middle colonies because it was necessary  for political rights and economic independence only in the North.
  
  
¡   Land ownership was widespread in the North  but a shortage of farmland and the practice of dividing family  farms among the sons had left the average farm barely big enough to support a family.
  
  
¡   The reduced size and productivity of northern  farms forced many farmers to move to  other regions or to take up other occupations at least  during those periods when little work was required on a farm.
  
  

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11题应该选C吧,burdensome的含义里没有frequent的意思

這邊是再說明農事工作比較不頻繁,A是可能的
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