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[机经题库答案] 托福阅读社会类真题Population Growth in nineteenth-Century Europe原文+题目汇总

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发表于 2017-5-9 17:40 |显示全部楼层
类别:社会类
真题150307CN(B)-P3
Title:Population Growth in nineteenth-Century  Europe
Because  of industrialization, but also because of a vast increase in agricultural  output without which industrialization would have been impossible, Western  Europeans by the  latter half of the nineteenth century enjoyed higher  standards of living and longer, healthier lives than most of the world’s peoples. In Europe as a  whole, the population rose from 188 million  in 1800 to 400 million in  1900. By 1900, virtually every area of Europe had contributed to the tremendous surge of population, but  each major region was at a different  stage of demographic change.
  
Improvements in the food  supply continued trends  that had started  in the late seventeenth  century. New lands were put under cultivation, while the use  of crops of American origin, particularly the potato, continued to expand. Setbacks did occur. Regional agricultural failures were the most common cause of economic recessions until 1850, and they  could lead to localized famine as  well. A major potato blight (disease) in 1846-1847 led to the deaths of at least one million persons in  Ireland and the emigration of another million, and Ireland never recovered the  population levels the potato had  sustained to that point. Bad grain harvests  at the same time led to increased hardship throughout much of Europe.

  
After 1850,  however, the expansion of foods more regularly kept pace with population growth, though the poorer classes remained malnourished. Two developments were crucial. First,  the application of science and new  technology to agriculture increased. Led by German universities, increasing research was devoted to improving seeds, developing  chemical fertilizers, and  advancing livestock. After 1861, with the development of land-grant universities in the United  States that had huge agricultural programs, American crop-production research added to  this mix. Mechanization included  the use of horse-drawn harvesters and seed drills, many developed  initially in the United States. It also included mechanical cream separators and other food-processing devices that improved supply.

  
The  second development involved industrially based transportation. With trains and steam shipping, it became  possible to move foods to needy regions  within Western Europe quickly. Famine (as opposed to malnutrition) became a thing of the past. Many Western European countries, headed by Britain, began also to import increasing amounts of  food, not only from Eastern Europe, a traditional source,  but also from the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand.  Steam shipping, which improved speed and capacity, as well as new procedures for canning and refrigerating foods  (particularly after 1870),  was fundamental to these developments.

  
Europe’s  population growth included on additional innovation by the nineteenth century: it combined with rapid urbanization.  More and more Western Europeans  moved from countryside to city, and big cities grew most rapidly of all. By 1850, over half of all the people  in England lived  in cities, a first in human history. In one sense,  this pattern seems  inevitable. Growing numbers  of people pressed available resources on the land, even when farmwork  was combined with a bit of manufacturing, so people crowded into cities seeking work or other resources. Traditionally, however, death  rates in cities surpassed those in the countryside  by a large margin, cities had  maintained population only through steady in-migration. Thus rapid urbanization should have reduced  overall population growth, but by the  middle of the nineteenth century  this was no longer the case. Urban  death rates remained high,  particularly in the lower-class slums,  but they began  to decline rapidly.
  
The greater  reliability of food supplies was a factor  in the decline of urban death rates. Even more important were the gains  in urban sanitation, as well as measures  such as inspection of housing. Reformers, including enlightened doctors, began to study the causes of high death  rates and to urge remediation. Even before the discovery of germs,  beliefs that disease spread by “miasmas”  (noxious forms of bad air)  prompted attention to sewers and open garbage. Edwin Chadwick led an exemplary urban crusade for underground  sewers in England in the 1830s. Gradually, public health provisions began to  cut into customary urban mortality rates. By 1900, in some parts of Western  Europe life expectancy in the cities began to surpass that of the rural  areas. Industrial societies had figured out ways to combine large and growing  cities with population growth, a development that would soon spread to other  parts of the world.


  Paragraph 1  
Because  of industrialization, but also because of a vast increase in agricultural  output without which industrialization would have been impossible, Western  Europeans by the  latter half of the nineteenth century enjoyed higher  standards of living and longer, healthier lives than most of the world’s peoples. In Europe as a whole,  the population rose from 188 million in 1800 to 400 million in 1900. By 1900,  virtually every area of Europe had  contributed to the tremendous surge of population, but each major region was at a different stage of demographic change.
  
1.        According  to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about  Europe in the nineteenth century?
  
A.        A large increase in food production led to industrialization.
B.        Population changes occurred at the same pace  in the major regions.
C.         The standard of living rose to the level of  that in most parts of the world.
D.        The tremendous rise  in population led to greater agricultural output in every region.
  
  Paragraph 2  
Improvements in the food  supply continued trends  that had started  in the late seventeenth  century. New lands were put under cultivation, while the use of  crops of American origin, particularly the potato, continued to expand. Setbacks did occur. Regional agricultural failures were the most common cause   of  economic  recessions   until  1850,  and   they  could  lead   to localized famine as  well. A major potato blight (disease) in 1846-1847 led to the deaths of at  least one million persons in Ireland and the emigration of another million,  and Ireland never recovered the population levels the potato had sustained to  that point. Bad grain harvests at the same time led to increased hardship  throughout much of Europe.

  
2.       According to paragraph 2, which of the  following caused the food supply to  increase in most of Western Europe during the nineteenth century?
  
A.        Replacement of seventeenth-century farming  techniques with more modern ones
B.        Improved grain harvests in most European countries
C.         Reduced demand for food as a result of a  decreased population
D.        Use of new land to grow crops

  
3.       In paragraph 2, why does the author mention  the potato blight that occurred in Ireland?
  
A.        To identify a crop that was more successful  in the United State than it was in  Western Europe
B.        To support a claim about regional  agricultural failures
C.         To give an example of a problematic trend that had started in the late seventeenth century
D.        To provide evidence that many countries in Europe experienced a loss of population in the nineteenth century
  
  Paragraph 3  
After  1850, however, the expansion of foods more regularly kept pace  with population growth, though the poorer classes remained malnourished. Two developments were crucial. First, the application of science  and new technology to agriculture increased. Led by German  universities, increasing  research was devoted to improving seeds, developing chemical fertilizers, and advancing livestock. After 1861,  with the development of land-grant  universities in the   United States  that had huge agricultural programs,  American crop-production research added to this mix. Mechanization included  the use of horse-drawn harvesters and seed drills, many developed initially  in the United States. It also included mechanical cream separators and other  food-processing devices that improved supply.

  
4.       The phrase “kept  pace with” in the passage is closest in meaning to
  
A.        exceeded
B.        matched the increase in
C.         increased the rate of
D.        caused

  
5.        According to paragraph 3, all of the  following factors helped the supply of  food meet the needs of a growing population  EXCEPT
  
A.        increased agricultural research in Germany
B.        introduction of new crops
C.         development of food-processing devices
D.        agricultural programs in universities in the  United States
  
  Paragraph 4  
The  second development involved industrially based transportation. With trains and steam shipping, it  became possible to move foods to needy regions  within Western Europe quickly. Famine (as opposed to malnutrition) became a thing of the  past. Many Western European countries, headed  by Britain, began also to import increasing amounts of  food, not only from Eastern Europe, a traditional source,  but also from the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand.  Steam shipping, which improved speed and capacity, as well as new procedures for canning and refrigerating foods  (particularly after 1870),  was fundamental to these developments.

  
6.       The word “capacity”  in the passage is closest in meaning to
  
A.        variety of  goods
B.        distance
C.         reliability
D.        available storage space
  
7.        According to paragraph 4, famine became  less of a problem in Western Europe during the nineteenth century  because of
  
A.        the decline of malnutrition
B.        the construction of more food-storage facilities
C.         faster means of transportation
D.        improved agricultural methods in Eastern Europe
  
  Paragraph 5  
Europe’s  population growth included on additional innovation by the nineteenth century: it combined with rapid urbanization.  More and more Western Europeans  moved from countryside to city, and big cities grew most rapidly of all. By 1850, over half of all the people  in England lived  in cities, a first in human history. In one sense,  this pattern seems  inevitable growing numbers of people pressed available  resources on the land, even when farmwork  was combined with a bit of manufacturing, so people crowded into cities seeking work or other resources. Traditionally, however, death  rates in cities surpassed those in the countryside  by a large margin, cities had  maintained population only through steady in-migration. Thus rapid urbanization should have reduced  overall population growth, but by the  middle of the nineteenth century  this was no longer the case. Urban  death rates remained high,  particularly in the lower-class slums,  but they began  to decline rapidly.
  
8.       The word “inevitable”  in the passage is closest in meaning to
  
A.        unexplainable
B.        undesirable
C.         unavoidable
D.        unpredictable

  
9.       According to paragraph 5, which of the  following factors led to rapid  urbanization in the first half of the nineteenth century?
  
A.        The destruction of many farms due to bad harvests
B.        The reduction in the amount of good-quality farmland
C.         The rise in death rates in the countryside
D.        The lack of jobs in the countryside
  
  Paragraph 6  
The greater  reliability of food supplies was a factor  in the decline of urban death rates. Even more important were the gains  in urban sanitation, as well as measures  such as inspection of housing. Reformers, including enlightened doctors, began to study the causes of high death  rates and to urge remediation. Even before the discovery of germs,  beliefs that disease spread by “miasmas”  (noxious forms of bad air)  prompted attention to sewers and open garbage. Edwin Chadwick led an exemplary urban crusade for underground sewers  in England in the 1830s.  Gradually, public health  provisions began to cut into customary urban mortality rates.  By 1900, in some parts  of Western Europe  life expectancy in the cities began to surpass that of the rural areas. Industrial  societies had figured out ways to combine large and growing cities with population growth, a  development that would soon spread to other  parts of the world.

  
10.    The word “ surpass”  in the passage is closest in meaning to
  
A.        exceed
B.        influence
C.         equal
D.        differ from
  
11.     Which of the following can be inferred from  paragraph 6 about underground sewers?
  
A.        They became common in most of Western Europe  in the 1830s.
B.        They helped reduce deaths caused by disease  in cities.
C.         They led to the discovery that disease could  be caused by germs.
D.        They encouraged people to leave rural areas  and move to the cities.

  
12.    Paragraph 6 mentions all of the following as  factors that contributed the rapid  decline of urban death rates EXCEPT
  
A.        the greater reliability of food supplies
B.        improvements in sanitation
C.         advances in the treatment of disease
D.        provisions for inspecting houses

  
The greater  reliability of food supplies was a factor  in the decline of urban death rates. nEven more important were the gains in urban sanitation, as well as measures such as inspection of housing. nReformers, including enlightened doctors, began to  study the causes of high death rates and to  urge remediation. Even before  the discovery of germs, beliefs  that disease spread by “miasmas” (noxious forms of  bad air) prompted attention to sewers and  open garbage. Edwin Chadwick led an exemplary urban crusade for underground sewers in England in the 1830s. nGradually,  public health provisions began to  cut into customary urban mortality rates. nBy  1900, in some parts of Western Europe life expectancy in the cities began  to surpass that of the rural areas.  Industrial societies had figured out  ways to combine large and growing cities  with population growth, a development that  would soon spread to other parts of the world.

  
13.    Look at the four squares [n] that  indicate where the following sentence  could be added to the passage.
  Such individual efforts had substantial,  concrete effects on society.  
Where would the sentence best fit?
  
14.   Directions: An introductory sentence for  a brief summary of the passage is  provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices  that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because the express  ideas that are not presented in  the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
  Western Europe experience a tremendous                                growth in population in the nineteenth century.  
Answer Choices
  
A.        Agricultural failures became less damaging  after 1850 because of advances in science and technology as well as improvements in the transportation and preservation of foods.
B.        The development of better food-processing  technologies allowed many Western European countries to grow  their own food without having  to import it from other countries.
C.         High death rates  in the cities  began to decline  as food supplies became more reliable and as reformers prompted improvements  in sanitation and housing.
D.        Although agricultural failures led to deaths  and emigration, population levels were restored  within a short time.
E.         As the population in the countryside began  increasing faster than the supply  of food and living space, people began moving to the cities in search  of jobs and other resources.
F.         The improvements in crop-growing methods created  new jobs on the farms, causing  people from the overcrowded cities to move to the countryside to find those  jobs.

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