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[机经题库答案] 托福阅读社会类真题Hunting and the Setting of Inner Eurasia原文+题目汇总

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发表于 2017-5-9 17:43 |显示全部楼层
类别:社会类
真题140816CN-P1
Title:Hunting and the Setting of Inner Eurasia
Inner Eurasia refers to the large continental  area extending from Russia in the west to the Pacific  Ocean, and to the north of Iran, India, and most of China. The first systematic colonization of parts of Inner  Eurasia occurred about 80,000 to 90,000 years ago, which is relatively late in  human history compared with Africa, Europe, and southern Asia.  Why was it difficult to settle?

  
The long, cold, arid winters  of this region’s steppes (grass covered  plains) poised two  distinctive problems for human settlers. The first was hot to keep warm. Humans may have used fire even a million  years ago. Presumably their ability to scavenge animal  carcasses meant that  they could use skins or furs for warmth. However,  there are no signs of hearths before  about 200,000 years  ago. This suggests that humans used fire  opportunistically and had not yet domesticated it enough to survive the harsh winters of Ice  Age Inner Eurasia.

  
The second, even trickier problem was getting  food during the long winters. It was not that Inner Eurasia lacked sources  of food. The problem was that the food was of the wrong kind, and it was not  always available. Humans could not exploit  the abundant grasses of the  steppes, and most of the edible plants died off in winter. So, for long  periods of each year, it was necessary to rely mainly on meat. However, hunting  is a more difficult, dangerous, and unreliable way of life  than gathering. Animals,  unlike plants, can evade predators and may even fight back. Hunters must  also cover more ground than gatherers.

  
Setting Inner Eurasia meant overcoming these difficulties.  Systematic and reliable hunting methods meant more than the  development of new technologies, they  also demanded new social structures. According to the formulation of archaeologist  Lewis Binford, in a typical hunter/collector food-gathering strategy parties of hunters leave camps  with very specific goals in mind, based on  intimate knowledge of their  intended prey. They may by away for days or weeks at a time and will often store  their kill at specific storage sites, from which  they will bring  food back to a base camp when needed. As a result, they move their  base camps less often than in  forager societies, but they range more widely, their movements are more  carefully planned, and so are their methods of storage.

  
Thus, hunters have  to plan in advance and in great  detail. They need  reliable information about  the movements and habits of animal prey  over large areas,  which can be secured only by maintaining regular contacts with  neighboring groups.  Finally, they need reliable  methods   of  storage  because,   where plant foods cannot provide a dietary safety net,  planning has to be precise and detailed to ensure that there is enough  to tide them over in periods of shortage. Such planning appears in the choice  of hunting gear,  in the selection of routes and prey, in the choice of companions and  timing, in the maintenance of communications with neighbors, and in the  methods of storage. Failure at any point  can be fatal for the entire group.

  
Hunting strategies also imply greater social complexity.  The regular exchange of information and sometimes of material  goods is critical not only within groups, but also between groups scattered over large  distances. This increases the importance of symbolic exchanges of both  goods and information, and makes it necessary to clarify group identity.  Internally, groups may split for long periods as hunting parties travel over great distances. All in all,  each group has to exist and survive  in several distinct configurations.
  
For these reasons, archaeologist Clive Gamble  has argued that the difficulties of setting  the Eurasian heartland arose less from  the technological than from the social and organizational features of human communities before 120,000 years ago. There is little or no archaeological  evidence that these communities  engaged in such practices as detailed planning or widespread contacts. Nor is there  any physical evidence for storage, raw materials all come from  within a radius of 50  kilometers—and usually less than 5 kilometers—of the sites where they were used.

  
Paragraph 2
The long, cold,  arid winters of this region’s steppes (grass covered  plains) poised two  distinctive problems for human settlers. The first was hot to keep warm. Humans may have used fire even a million  years ago. Presumably their ability to scavenge animal  carcasses meant that  they could use skins or furs for warmth. However,  there are no signs of hearths before  about 200,000 years  ago. This suggests that humans used fire  opportunistically and had not yet domesticated it enough to  survive the harsh winters of Ice Age  Inner Eurasia.

  
1.    According to paragraph 2, why would  it have been  difficult for humans  to stay warm in Inner Eurasia before 200,000  years ago?
  
¡  Fire had not yet been discovered.
¡  Humans did not have  access to skins or furs to help keep them  warm.
¡  Humans had not yet  learned how to bring fire into daily use.
¡  Lack of fuel made  building fires on the steppes almost impossible.

  
2.    The word "harsh " in the passage is closest in  meaning to

¡  severe
¡  lengthy
¡  exceptional
¡  dark

  
Paragraph 3
The second, even trickier problem was getting food during the long  winters. It was not that Inner Eurasia lacked sources  of food. The problem was that the food was of the wrong kind, and it was not  always available. Humans could not exploit  the abundant grasses of the  steppes, and most of the edible plants died off in winter. So, for long  periods of each year, it was necessary to rely mainly on meat. However, hunting  is a more difficult, dangerous, and unreliable way of life  than gathering. Animals,  unlike plants, can evade predators  and may even fight back. Hunters must also cover more ground  than gatherers.
  
3.    The word "evade" in the passage is closest in  meaning to
  
¡  escape
¡  trick
¡  capture
¡  threaten

  
4.    According to paragraph  3, getting food during the long winters was  a problem for humans in Inner Eurasia  because
  
¡  the area lacked  sources of food
¡  steppe animals were  not suitable for humans to hunt
¡  the animals migrated  when the edible plants died off each year
¡  the lack of edible  plants in the winter forced humans to depend on meat

  
Paragraph 4
Setting Inner Eurasia meant overcoming these difficulties. Systematic  and reliable hunting methods meant more than the development of new  technologies, they also demanded  new social structures. According to the formulation of archaeologist Lewis  Binford, in a typical hunter/collector  food-gathering strategy  parties of hunters leave camps with very specific goals in mind, based on intimate knowledge of their intended prey. They may by away for days or  weeks at a time and will often  store their kill  at specific storage sites, from which  they will bring  food back to a base camp when needed. As a result, they move their  base camps less often than in  forager societies, but they range more widely, their movements are more  carefully planned, and so are their methods of storage.
  
5.    Why  does the author present an extended discussion of Lewis Binford’s formulation of a typical  ¯hunter/collector food-gathering strategy‖?
  
¡   To introduce recent evidence from Inner  Eurasia that has changed the archaeological understanding of the daily  lives of human hunters
¡   To support the claim that setting Inner  Eurasia must have required new social  structures
¡  To challenge the claim  from the previous paragraph that hunting is a difficult, dangerous, and unreliable way of life
¡   To present a theory about  the life of humans in Inner Eurasia that will be contradicted  later in the passage

  
6.    All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 4 as behaviors that Lewis Binford  considered typical of the hunter/collector food-gathering strategy EXCEPT
  
¡  having a detailed  knowledge of the animals being hunted
¡  ranging over a  relatively wide area in search of food
¡  storing extra food at  places other than the campsite
¡  hunting away from the  campsite for one day or less

  
Paragraph 5
Thus, hunters have to plan in advance  and in great  detail. They need reliable information about the movements and habits of animal  prey over large  areas, which can be secured only by maintaining regular contacts with  neighboring groups. Finally,  they need reliable methods of storage because, where plant foods cannot  provide a dietary safety net, planning has to be precise and detailed  to ensure that there is enough to tide them over in periods of shortage. Such planning appears in the choice  of hunting gear,  in the selection of routes and prey, in the choice of companions and  timing, in the maintenance of communications with  neighbors, and in the methods of storage. Failure  at any point can be fatal for the entire group.

  
7.    The word "habits" in the passage is closest in  meaning to
  
¡  likes and dislikes
¡  biological instincts
¡  usual behaviors
¡  home environments

  
8.    Which of the sentences  below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted  sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important  ways or leave out essential information.
  
¡   Precise and detailed diet planning is needed for times when neither fresh plants  nor animals are available.
¡   Careful planning for storage is necessary to  ensure that there is sufficient food  during periods when plant foods are not available.
¡   Planning must be precise and detailed in order  to ensure that their supply of plant food is safe.
¡   To survive periods of shortage, they need either  reliable methods of storage or precise  and detailed planning.

  
9.    According to paragraph  5, hunting trips require precise and detailed planning in terms of  each of the following EXCEPT
  
¡  when to leave and  where to go
¡  what animals will be  hunted
¡  how the captured prey  will be divided among neighboring groups
¡  who will make up the  hunting party and what gear they will bring

  
Paragraph 6
Hunting strategies also imply greater social complexity. The regular  exchange of information and sometimes of material goods is critical not only  within groups, but also between groups scattered over large  distances. This increases the importance of symbolic exchanges of both  goods and information, and makes it necessary to clarify group identity.  Internally, groups may split for long periods as hunting parties travel over great distances. All in all,  each group has to exist and survive  in several distinct configurations.

  
10.  It can be inferred from paragraph 6 that hunting  groups differ from  other groups in that hunting groups
  
¡  tend to have the same  individuals for longer periods of time
¡  have a greater need to  establish a clear identity
¡  generally have social  connections only with other hunting groups
¡  are less likely to  exchange information with other groups

  
11.  The word "configurations" in the passage is  closest in meaning to
  
¡  environments
¡  arrangements
¡  situations
¡  conditions

  
Paragraph 7
For these reasons, archaeologist Clive Gamble has argued that the  difficulties of setting  the Eurasian heartland arose less from  the technological than from the social and organizational features of human communities before 120,000 years ago. There is little or no  archaeological evidence that these communities  engaged in such practices as detailed planning or widespread contacts. Nor is there  any physical evidence for storage, raw materials all come from  within a radius of 50  kilometers—and usually less than 5 kilometers—of the sites where they were used.
  
12.  According to paragraph  7, which of the following was true of human  communities before 120,000 years ago?
¡   They obtained their raw materials from the  area in which these materials were used.
¡   They left little  in the way  of archaeological evidence that can be used to understand  their technologies.
¡  They were usually  located less than 5 kilometers from other  human  communities.
¡  They stored raw  materials at multiple locations.

  
Paragraph 5
Thus, hunters have to plan in advance and in great detail. ■They need reliable information about the movements and  habits of animal  prey over large  areas, which can be secured only by maintaining regular contacts with  neighboring groups. ■ Finally,  they need reliable methods of storage because, where plant foods  cannot   provide  a  dietary   safety  net,  planning   has  to  be   precise and detailed to ensure  that there is enough to tide them over in periods of   shortage. ■ Such  planning appears in the choice of hunting gear, in the selection of routes and prey, in the choice of  companions and timing, in the maintenance of  communications with neighbors, and in the methods of storage. ■ Failure  at any point can be fatal for the entire group.

  
13.  Look at  the four squares [■] that indicate where the  following sentence can be added to  the passage.
  
The consequences of inadequate planning are serious.
Where would the sentence best fit?

  
14.  Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief  summary of the passage is provided  below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong  in the summary  because they express  ideas that are not presented in the passage  or are minor  ideas in the passage. This  question is worth 2 points.
  
Drag your choices to the spaces where  they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.
                  
            
The long, cold winters of Inner Eurasia made      the setting of the      region difficult for      humans.

Answer Choices
  
  
¡   Although humans had fire  and animal skins for warmth, they lacked the technology that  would have allowed them to hunt animals over a large territory.
¡   Although humans had  sufficient means of storage, they  could not gather enough edible plants to  last them through the year.
¡   Hunting requires social complexity, since information and goods must be exchanged among  groups that are scattered across a large territory and that  have different members at different  times.
¡   Heavy snowfall and extreme temperatures made hunting impossible  in Inner Eurasia for much of the year and forced humans to depend  on grasses for survival.
¡   Humans would have needed to survive  the winters by hunting, which  would have required them to be expert planners and organizers.
¡   The absence of certain  kinds of archaeological evidence of /  sites suggests that before  120,000 years ago, humans  weren’t socially sophisticated  enough to survive in Inner Eurasia.

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