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[机经题库答案] 托福阅读生物类真题Sociality in Animals原文+题目汇总

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发表于 2017-5-15 14:26 |只看该作者 |倒序浏览
类别:生物类
真题140706CN-P3
Title:Sociality in Animals
Social insects represent the  high point of invertebrate evolution. Some species live in communities  of millions, coordinating their building and foraging, their reproduction,  and their offspring care. Yet sociality is found in only a few species  of insects, and is rare among vertebrates as well: wildebeest (large  antelope) and lions are  the exception rather  than the rule.  Nearly all fish,  amphibians, reptiles, birds,  and mammals are  solitary, except when  courting and mating. Birds and mammals  usually rear their young, but year-round family groups are almost  unknown, though they are intensely studied where they do exist. The  same is true for insects.  
We know, or think we know, that social groups  are good. Wolves  are better predators when they hunt  in packs, and pigeons escape  from falcons far  more often when feeding in  flocks. Group building projects—the dams beavers build to block a body of  water that provides them with relative safety from predators and the  lodges they build for shelter, for instance—can provide a high level of protection  and comfort. Why, then, are social species so very rare? In fact, living socially  presents inevitable problems that transcend habitat needs so that  only when these  costs are offset  by corresponding benefits is group living  a plus.
The most obvious cost  is competition. All the members of a species share the same habitat;  when they live together, they are trying to eat the same food and occupy the same nesting sites. In  general, there is far less competition away  from a group, and selection should favor any  individual who (all  things being equal) sets off on its own, leaving  the members of its group behind to compete among themselves  for limited resources. Another difficulty is that concentrations of individuals  facilitate disease and parasite transmission. On the whole, social  animals carry more parasites and species-specific diseases than do solitary animals. Parasites and diseases diminish the strength and limit  the growth of animals,  and among highly  social creatures, epidemics can devastate whole populations.  Distemper (a viral disease) has been known to wipe out entire colonies of seals, for instance. So the penalty of social life  is potentially huge.
But in some instances, the  payoffs can be even greater. Two have already been mentioned:  cooperative hunting and defensive groups. Social hunting is likely to evolve where  prey is too large to be taken  by individuals operating alone. To capture wildebeest some members of a group  of lions follow their prey and herd them toward others  lying in ambush.  In other species, individuals forage or hunt simultaneously and share the food. Vampire  bats that have had a bad day, for instance,  are fed by more successful members of the  community, but they  are expected to return the  favor in the future. Cooperation can even involve sharing information about the location  of food. Some colonial birds, such as bank  swallows, use the departure direction of a successful forager (food hunter)  to locate concentrations of  prey. Information transfer can be unintentional though some species  make use of special assembly calls or behavior.
efense,  such as we see in circles of musk oxen or elephants, is quite rare  among vertebrates but is prevalent among the social  insects. The strategy of employing many eyes to watch for danger, on the other hand,  is widespread in birds and mammals. A herd of gazelles (small antelope) is far more likely to spot a lurking  lion or a concealed cheetah than is a lone individual, and at a greater distance. In  fact, a group enters into a kind of time-sharing arrangement in which  individual antelope alternate biting off a  mouthful of grass with a period of erect and watchful chewing. A larger group can afford  more bites per individual per minute, there  being more eyes to scan for danger.  For a small antelope living  in a forest where visibility is limited, however,  remaining hidden is probably a better bet than assembling into noisy herds.
Among the millions of species of insects, only a few thousand are  social. Those rarities  are generally confined to termites and Hymenoptera. All termites are social: their diet (cellulose) requires that each  generation feed a special kind of bacteria  or fungi to the next  generation to aid  in its digestion. Of the numerous hymenopterans, some are  social—including all ants and a few bees and  wasps—but many are solitary.
  
Paragraph 1
Social insects represent the high point of  invertebrate evolution. Some species live in communities of millions, coordinating  their building and foraging, their reproduction, and their offspring care.  Yet sociality is found in only a few species of insects, and is rare among  vertebrates as well: wildebeest (large antelope) and lions are the  exception rather than  the rule. Nearly  all fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and  mammals are solitary, except when courting and mating. Birds  and mammals usually rear their young, but year-round family groups are almost unknown,  though they are intensely studied where they do exist. The same is true for insects.
  
1.    According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of sociality among animal  species?
¡  Sociality is much more common among  invertebrates than among vertebrates.
¡  Very few animals are considered social because  most spend the majority of their lives alone.
¡  An animal group must contain more than one  family unit for the species to be considered social.
¡ All animals that rear  their young are considered to be social.
  
Paragraph 2
We know, or think we know, that social groups  are good. Wolves  are better predators when they hunt  in packs, and pigeons escape  from falcons far  more often when feeding in  flocks. Group building projects—the dams beavers build to block a body of  water that provides them with relative safety from predators and the  lodges they build for shelter, for instance—can provide a high level of protection  and comfort. Why, then, are social species so very rare? In  fact, living socially presents inevitable problems that transcend habitat needs so that only when these costs are  offset by corresponding benefits is group  living a plus.
  
2.    Which of the sentences  below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted  sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important  ways or leave out essential information
¡ Group living allows  some animals to transcend problems of habitat.
¡  Group living is only advantageous when  benefits outweigh inevitable problems.
¡ Problems resulting  from living socially extend beyond the habitat.
¡ It is difficult to  determine whether the benefits of social living offset its costs.
  
Paragraph 3
The most obvious cost is competition. All the members of a species share the same habitat;  when they live together, they are trying to eat the same food and occupy the same nesting sites. In  general, there is far less competition away  from a group, and selection should favor any  individual who (all  things being equal) sets off on its own, leaving the  members of its group behind to compete among themselves for limited resources. Another  difficulty is that concentrations of individuals facilitate disease and  parasite transmission. On the whole, social animals carry more parasites and  species-specific diseases than do solitary animals. Parasites and diseases diminish  the strength and limit the growth of animals,  and among highly  social creatures, epidemics can devastate whole populations. Distemper (a viral disease)  has been known to wipe out entire colonies of seals, for instance. So the  penalty of social life is potentially huge.
  
3.    What does paragraph 3  say about the relationship between natural  selection and animals that  live apart from other members of their species?
¡  Natural selection does not favor living apart because  individuals are unable to obtain resources equal to those of  group members.
¡  Natural selection does not favor  living apart because of the intense competition for resources among  individuals apart from a group.
¡  Natural selection favors living apart because  individuals are unlikely to attract the attention of predators.
¡  Natural selection favors living apart because  group living increases competition for limited resources of  food and nesting sites.

4.    The word "devastate " in the passage is closest  in meaning to
¡ alter
¡ spread to
¡ destroy
¡ involve
  
5.   In paragraph 3, why does  the author mention distemper and its  effect on seals?
¡ To explain why  sociality is now relatively rare in seals
¡ To prove that  parasites prevent animals from growing healthy and strong
¡ To show how easily  social animals transmit potentially deadly  diseases  
¡  To provide an example of a species-specific  disease that affects solitary animals
  
Paragraph 4
But in some instances, the payoffs can be even  greater. Two have already been mentioned: cooperative hunting and  defensive groups. Social hunting is likely  to evolve where  prey is too large to be taken  by individuals operating alone. To capture wildebeest some members of a group  of lions follow their prey and herd them toward others  lying in ambush. In other species, individuals forage or hunt simultaneously and share the food. Vampire bats that have had a bad day, for instance,  are fed by more successful members of the  community, but they  are expected to return the  favor in the future. Cooperation can even involve sharing information  about the location of food. Some colonial birds, such as bank swallows, use the departure direction of a successful forager (food hunter) to locate  concentrations of prey. Information transfer can be unintentional though some species make use of special assembly  calls or behavior.
  
6.    The word "simultaneously " in the passage is  closest in meaning to  
¡ at the same time
¡ in the same way  
¡ for the same reason  
¡ on the same scale  
  
7.    The word "unintentional " in the passage is  closest in meaning to
¡ unsuccessful  
¡ unplanned  
¡ inaccurate  
¡ impractical  
  
8.    According to paragraph  4, how do lions increase their chances of  successfully hunting wildebeest?  
¡ They work together as  a team to chase and capture the animals.  
¡ They wait until groups  of the animals come close to their hiding  place.  
¡ They follow and catch  the animals that are operating alone.  
¡ They focus on the  smallest members of the species.  
  
9.    Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 4 about how bank swallows find food cooperatively?  
¡  They give special favors to members  of their community that have been  successful foragers.  
¡  They use special calls and signals to indicate  to other swallows where food is located.  
¡ They observe the  direction a successful forager took to locate prey.  
¡ They locate  concentrations of prey by setting off in different directions.  

Paragraph 5  
Cooperation in group defense, such as we see in  circles of musk oxen or elephants, is quite rare  among vertebrates but is prevalent among the social  insects. The strategy of employing many eyes to watch for danger, on the other hand,  is widespread in birds and mammals. A herd of gazelles (small antelope) is far more likely to spot a lurking  lion or a concealed cheetah than is a lone individual, and at a greater distance. In  fact, a group enters into a kind of time-sharing arrangement in which  individual antelope alternate biting  off a mouthful of grass with  a period of erect and watchful chewing. A larger group can afford  more bites per individual per minute, there  being more eyes to scan for danger.  For a small antelope living  in a forest where visibility is limited, however,  remaining hidden is probably a better bet than assembling into noisy herds.  
  
10.  The word "alternate " in the passage is closest  in meaning to  
¡ make a habit of  
¡ have conflicts over  
¡ show a preference for  
¡ take turns at  
  
11.  According to paragraph  5, how does cooperation help gazelles avoid  predation?  
¡ The herd forms a  defensive circle around the weakest members of the group.  
¡  Because they share food, all of the animals are well nourished and ready to run.  
¡ The herd makes a lot  of noise, which scares off predators.  
¡ Some animals watch for  danger while others concentrate on feeding.  
  
Paragraph 6
Among the millions of species of insects, only a few thousand are  social. Those rarities  are generally confined to termites and Hymenoptera. All termites are social: their diet (cellulose) requires that each  generation feed a special kind of bacteria or fungi to the next  generation to aid  in its digestion. Of the numerous hymenopterans, some are  social—including all ants and a few bees and  wasps—but many are solitary.  
  
12.  Which of the following  can be inferred from paragraph 6 about termites?
¡  They are the only  insect species whose members are all social.  
¡  They have smaller  communities than hymenopterans.  
¡  They are more  independent than hymenopterans.  
¡  They have to live  together to pass on digestive bacteria to their young.  
  
Paragraph 2  
We know, or think we know, that  social groups are good. ■ Wolves are better predators  when they hunt in packs,  and pigeons escape  from falcons far more often when feeding in flocks. ■ Group  building projects—the dams beavers build to block a body of water that provides them with relative  safety from predators and the lodges they  build for shelter, for instance—can provide  a high level  of protection and comfort. ■  Why, then, are social species so very rare? ■ In fact, living socially presents inevitable problems that  transcend habitat needs so that only when these costs are offset by  corresponding benefits is group living a plus.
  
13.  Look at  the four squares [■] that indicate where the  following sentence can be added to  the passage.  
The engineering of structures of such size  and complexity is unknown among  solitary animals.  
Where would the sentence best fit?
  
14.  Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief  summary of the passage is provided  below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong  in the summary  because they express  ideas that are not presented in the passage  or are minor  ideas in the passage. This question is worth  2 points.
  
Drag your  choices to the spaces where they belong. To review the passage, click on View Text.  
  
   
            
Some animal  species       demonstrate       sociability,  but  solitary       behaviors  are  far      more typical among animals.
      
      
      
      


       Answer Choices
  
¡  Because birds and mammals engage in courting,  mating, and establishing year-round family groups to rear young, they are most  likely to be social species.  
  
¡  Some social animals obtain food through  cooperation and share food and information about food sources with each  other.  
  
¡  Social animals help each other watch for  danger more effectively, and some species work together to combat predators.  
  
¡  Living in communities presents disadvantages,  such as the competition for resources and the easy transmission of diseases.  
  
¡  Some entire species of social animals have  become extinct because of disease epidemics.  
  
¡  Although some species of ants, bees, and  wasps are famous for their sociality, most social insects are not  hymenopterans.  

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