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发表于 2017-9-28 21:55 |显示全部楼层
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Humans have long been fascinated by elephants, the largest land animal in the modern world. Social animals that live in herds, elephants are native to both Africa and Asia. Their large ears, long trunk, and long life span have made elephants one of the most captivating creatures on Earth. Our long-standing interest in elephants has led to several beliefs about surprising elephant behaviors.Elephants Are Aware of Approaching DeathOne of the popular beliefs is that when elephants become old and weak, they know that they are nearing the end of their lives. They demonstrate this by breaking away from their herds and going off alone to certain locations often found near bodies of water -  so called "elephant graveyards" - to die alone. The idea that old elephants seem aware that they will die soon is supported by the discovery of many sites containing bones exclusively of elderly elephants.Representing Objects through ArtAdditionally, elephants seem to have artistic ability. Elephants can be taught to hold a paintbrush in their trunk and use it to paint on a canvas. Some elephants have been known to paint drawings that represent recognizable things: flowers, other elephants, even themselves. This talent makes elephants the only animal other than humans to produce art representing the world around them.Fear of MiceFinally, it has long been believed that elephants have a fear of mice. In 77 C.E., the Roman philosopher and scientist Pliny the Elder wrote that elephants are more afraid of mice, small mammals that can do elephants no harm, than of the much more dangerous animals with which elephants normally share an environment, such as lions or tigers. In a recent scientific experiment in which a herd of elephants was confronted with several mice, the elephants backed away from the mice and left the area to avoid them.     Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge the specific points made in the reading passage.


The reading passage lists three beliefs that people hold about elephant's surprising behaviors. But the professor in the lecture considers all those beliefs are the misunderstanding of elephants.

First, the reading thinks elephant can realize that they are almost die, because that old elephants will leave their herds to some other locations often near water. However, the professor claims that this phenomenon has some practical meaning. When elephants become old, their teeth are also aging. Therefore, they have difficulty in tweeing those vegetation. Then they need to look for some softer vegetation, and most of them are near water.

Second, the reading professes that elephants can paint meaningful drawing by their trunks. In the contrary, the professor thinks that is the result of training from animal trainers. Trainers always stroke elephants for years to let them remember those lines on canvas, and repeat them. They are trained to do this tricks by drawing those lines, but they do not really know what those lines represent.

The final belief is that elephants are afraid of mice because in some records, elephants avoid to confront several mice while share environments with those more dangerous mammals.  But the professor points that elephants are just afraid of something they are not familiar with. It is common for any creatures. After elephants are familiar with mice, as the elephants in zoos, they will not afraid mice and more. Because they know that mice have no threat to them.



     Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Movies and television have more negative effects than positive effects on the way young people behave. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.


Nowadays, movie and television have already become the necessary part in out daily life. People may choose to go to cinema in weekend or see a movie or watch television at home when having some rest. For young people who haven't formed a mature consciousness of value and judgment of right and wrong, some people think movies and television bring too much negative effects to them. However, I think movies and television can actually help them to be more optimistic and have a positive consciousness of value.

Because seeing movies and watching television are definitely great ways to let young people release themselves. Through some relaxing and funny movies or television series, people can forget those troubles they meet in life and also make their tried spirit have some rest.  Especially young people, they are in the period of growing and forming their characters. If they have too much negative emotions accumulated, it will cause them have a pessimistic or moody characters after grown up. Therefore, an effective way which can relax young people's spirit must have positive effects to them.

More important, proper kinds of movies and television can establish a beautiful world for young people, which can finally let them have a right judgment of the world. For example, when I was a kid, I always liked to see some cartoon movies. In those movies, leading character always need to suffer something hard to be strong, always have a group of nice friends and always can defeat those evil enemy in the end. Through those movies I believe that only I do a lot of efforts, I can be a strong and powerful man in the future. And if I have any bad thoughts that may hurt others, someone would come to punish me. Therefore, through those positive and proper movies and televisions, young people can form a right and rooted consciousness in their mind.

Although some movies and television are meaningless and will cause a negative effect for young people. These are just a small part of them, and their parents can protect their children from those bad programmes. Through the proper leading and selection, young people can really get some positive influences from them ,and in the future, be able to do right thin


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