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Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge the specific points made in the reading passage.



People nowadays have more freedom than people in the past because both of internet and public transportation connect us with whole the society. Both of them shorten the distance between places and people. However, I still feel that it is more important for government to spend money improving public transportation than Internet access. And my reasons are below.

First, people can live without Internet but they can not live without good public transportation. For example,  I grew up in countryside. I did not have good Internet access at home. However, with good public transportation, I could just take twenty minutes bus trip to city to do everything I want such as finding books in bookstore, buying clothes and shoes in the real stores. No good Internet access did not cause many troubles to my life. Even though Internet provides other ways for consumers to shop, how do the owner ship their products to consumers without good public transportation?

Second, good public transportation can reduce many social problems such as reducing population in city and lower the prices of houses. If government invest in public transportation, those who want to work in cities no need to be limited to stay in city. They can choose suburban areas instead. Therefore, the prices of houses in city will become more affordable.

Third,  good public transportation also create more job opportunities. For instance, instead of set all the factories in cities, companies can transfer the factories to countryside. With this way, companies can lower their cost and create more job opportunities for local people.  The work become more efficient and also stimulate the whole economy.


Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

It is more important for governments to spend money to improve Internet access than to improve public transportation.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.



The article states that there are many social benefits of the policy of imposing high taxes on cigarettes and other unhealthy products. However, the professor argues that the benefits of policy can be challenged and refutes each of the benefits.

First, the article claims that the higher tax would discourage people from buying unhealthy products such as cigarettes and unhealthy food and beverages. The professor refutes this point by saying that some people may buy lower quality of unhealthy food instead.Besides,others may continue buying unhealthy food despite the price is increased. Eventually, they probably do not have enough money to buy healthy food. Thus, increasing taxes would not prevent people from buying unhealthy food successfully.

Second, the article indicates that taxes of this kind are financially fair. It is possible that those who buy unhealthy food create extra medical costs. Therefore, they should pay more money than those who do not buy unhealthy food do. However, the professor says that it is not really fair. For example, taxes of unhealthy food may not have significant effect on higher- income people than lower - income people.

Third, the article says that the high taxes on unhealthy food could increase revenue for the government to benefit public welfare such as building infrastructures. The professor opposes this point by saying that the government may over depend on it and cause  other problems. For example, they may probably prohibit people from smoking both indoor and outdoor.


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