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[Cara. Zhong老师已改] 托福写作——[综合][TPO45] Thank you so much!

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发表于 2018-5-16 00:15 |显示全部楼层
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Q:
Did bees (a type of insect) exist on Earth as early as 200 million years ago? Such a theory is supported by the discovery of very old fossil structures that resemble bee nests. The structures have been found inside 200- million-year-old fossilized trees in the state of Arizona in the southwestern United States. However, many skeptics doubt that the structures were created by bees. The skeptics support their view with several arguments. No Fossils of Actual Bees First, no fossil remains of actual bees have ever been found that date to 200 million years ago. The earliest preserved body of a bee is 100 million years old—only half as old as the fossilized structures discovered in Arizona. Absence of Flowering Plants A second reason to doubt that bees existed 200 million years ago is the absence of flowering plants in that period. Today's bees feed almost exclusively on the flowers of flowering plants; in fact, bees and flowering plants have evolved a close, mutually dependent biological relationship. Flowering plants, however, first appeared on Earth 125 million years ago. Given the bees’ close association with flowering plants, it is unlikely bees could have existed before that time. Structures Lack Some Details Third, while the fossilized structures found in Arizona are somewhat similar to nest chambers made by modern bees, they lack some of the finer details of bees’ nests. For example, chambers of modern bee nests are closed by caps that have a spiral pattern, but the fossilized chambers lack such caps. That suggests the fossilized structures were made by other insects, such as wood-boring beetles.

A:

The lecturer totally refutes the passage on the discussion about whether bees appeared 200 million years ago.

Firstly, the paragraph claims that, since there's no fossil of bees in the remain, it is unlikely that there were bees at the time. However, the speaker maintains that no fossil records do not necessarily mean that no bees were developed. To preserve a fossil, as the lecturer mentioned, it requires very specific environment like trees producing lots of glue to capture the sample and reserve it. So, it is plausible that the lack of fossil is mainly due to the fact that no feasible environment occurred so no bees were captured and stored.

In the second place, the passage argues that there is proof that no flowering plants exist 200 million years ago, as bees are closely related species, bees is implausible to be presented in the time being. Likewise, the listening material suggests, it is true that bees are mutually beneficial with flowering plants. But it doesn't mean that bees long time ago have to follow this relationship as well. The ancient bees could be fed on pine trees or other plants survived at the time period.

Lastly, the fossil contained bee-nest resembled object does not match the structure with modern beehives if considered in details, as the paragraph stands. Nonetheless, as the speaker refutes again. Even though the structure is different from beehives nowadays. The chemical compound is almost the same. Therefore, even there are some modifications on minor details of how they build their nest 200 million years ago, the materials used to build the nest have remained the same so it is almost certain that the fossil beehive is the precursor of modern bees.










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发表于 2018-5-16 00:15 |显示全部楼层
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发表于 2018-5-22 11:45 |显示全部楼层
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发表于 2018-5-23 22:22 |显示全部楼层
我也写了这篇然鹅老师没有批改我的呀悲伤
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