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[GMAT写作] with用法与独立主格的总结

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发表于 2014-8-7 20:01 | 小站托福TPO客户端

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一、对立主格
       独立主格,首先它是一个“格”,而不是一个“句子”,在英语中任何一个句子都要有主谓结构,而在这个结构中,没有真正的主语谓语动词,但又在逻辑上构成主谓或主表关系。
       独立主格结构”在句中的功能就相当于一个带有自己主语状语从句。众所周知非限制性从句通常以主句的某一成分作为自己的逻辑主语,从而依附于主句。而有些非限制性从句和无动词从句带有自己的主语,在结构上与主句不发生关系,因此成为独立主格结构。其实,虽然叫做独立主格结构,并不是真正的独立,它还是一种从属分句,在句中有多种作用。如:表原因、表条件、表方式、表伴随、表时间等,在句中通常起状语作用。有时还可以做定语 。
如何判断是否需要使用独立主格呢?
    独立主格里的N与主语的主语一定是不一样的,但有一定的联系。
    eg:220.    (27530-!-item-!-188;#058&002469)    (GWD-24-8)
The results of the company's cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.  
A. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
D. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
E. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen
    根据以上原则,可以快速地排除DE选项。

独立主格的一般形式:
N+非谓语动词   (注意,这里的N和主语的主语是不一样的)
N+(being)+adj/adv/介词短语
N+N
eg. He put on his socks,wrong side out.
    Our teacher came into the room,book in hand.
    Lunch over,he left the house.But he was thinking.
    He fought the wolf,a stick his only weapon
那么如何选择合适的动词形式呢?
             在独立主格结构中,主格词与分词形成逻辑主谓关系时,用现在分词。如:Winter coming ,it gets colder and colder.一句中,“春天”和“到来”是逻辑主谓关系,用现在分词;主格词与分词形成逻辑动宾关系     时,用过去分词。如:More money given,we should have sent more employees to the mother company to get trained.一句中,“money”和“give”是动宾关系(被动关系),用过去分词。

且这里有个特殊情况,在强调独立主格里的动作发生在主语动作之前时,使用having- done结构
eg: The snow having stopped,she went out to sweep the snow in the yard.
     


独立主格的特殊形式:
特殊形式:SVO, 独立主格.
        I each 的组合
           i. each + doing/done
           ii. each + adj. + 介词 + n.
           iii. each + n.
           iv. each + 介词 + n.
        II 特殊形式的独立主格逻辑主语前无介词 with,且逻辑主语固定为 each
           i. I have many friends, each studying hard.
           ii. I have many friends, each famous as a star.
           iii. Linda has many dogs, each having their own names. (错误,their 应改为 each)



独立主格与with的关系:
       在独立主格的一般形式中,前面都可以加一个with构成复合结构,这个with可加可不加,不影响原句的意思,且上述的独立主格的特殊形式不加with。
      


以上为独立主格的语法部分,我们接着往下说。  加了with的复合结构,在语法功能上起了变化,是它可以作为定语修饰一个名词,但这种修饰很容易产生歧义,它既可以修饰主语的主语,也可以修饰主句的宾语。
eg.Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom.
所以,对于有with的复合结构,我们首先要判断它是作为独立主格修饰主语,还是作为定语修饰一个名词。
判断方法: 在gmat中,一般倾向于当with前面有逗号时,with复合结构做状语,当with前面没有逗号时,with复合结构作定语。




二、with的用法
1.如上,with复合结构的用法
      2.with+n结构
         用法一:  构成介词短语,这个结构做后置定语,可以修饰主语,也可以修饰宾语
         The diet of the ordinary Greek in classical times was largely vegetarian ----- vegetables, fresh cheese, oatmeal, and meal cakes, with meat as a rarity.(修饰主语)
           Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches,
with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.(修饰宾语)
            用法二:做原因状语
           eg:With total sales of less than three hundred dollars and fewer new subscribers than last year, the New England
Theatre Company is in danger of losing its building.
                With no natural predators and with expanses of green suburban neighborhoods where there is
no hunting, the deer population in New Jersey, wildlife officials estimate, has grown to exceed 175,000.
            用法三: “用”的意思,类似于by
            eg: George Sand(Aurore Lucile Dupin) was one of the first European writers to consider the rural poor
legitimate subjects for literature and to portray them with sympathy and respect in her novels.
                      He spoke with a soft Irish accent.
          用法四:伴随状语
          eg:He used to sleep with the door open
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